Friday, May 31, 2019

Pesticide Essay -- Environment, Contamination

It is known that amphibian populations are declining at alarming rates worldwide. Their population decline has been linked to various factors such as UV radiation, emerging diseases and pesticide exposure. Pesticide exposure however, is of particular importance due to their high potential for toxicity and widespread environmental contamination. They are commonly introduced into topical anesthetic water systems through runoff from uncouth fields. According to the National Water Quality Inventory, agricultural runoff is the leading cause of water pollution in rivers and lakes in the United States. Because many species of amphibians have habitats that coincide with agricultural areas, there is a heightened probability for contamination of their habitat through runoff. While pesticides increase agricultural profits, they also lead to high amphibian mortality and should have improved regulations. All amphibians have high skin permeability, which is a key factor in connecting pesticide s to their decline. This physiological feature can be linked to the ways in which gas exchanges occur within their circulatory system. Oxygen molecules first diffuse onto the dampish surface of the integument. The oxygen molecules are then picked up by red blood cells within capillaries, which run close to the skins surface. The oxygen-saturated blood is then circulated throughout the remains before being expelled similarly to how it was absorbed. Because of this high skin permeability, it is also much easier for toxins, such as pesticides, to enter and accumulate within the amphibians body (Association of Zoos and Aquariums).Once pesticides have been integrated into the amphibian, they may lead to malformation, decreased fitness even death depending on the kind... ...sticides, it is non, to require better regulations and enforcement. It however does not go without saying that pesticides do generate better agricultural products for our consumption and power the economy. But, po pulations of amphibians continue to dwindle and nothing has changed in the EPAs regulation of pesticides, including those mentioned. The world is quickly loosing considerable amounts of biodiversity in the name of secular bureaucratic processes. The perspective of ecologists and biologists continue to be ignored even in the wake of possible extinctions. If new rules are not put into effect and done so soon, there will undoubtedly be great consequences not seen since the days of the passenger pigeon. Once the world looses a species, no form of legislation can bring them back, which is why passing new regulations now is imperative for the present and future.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Lolita :: essays research papers


Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Childhood Obesity in The United States Essay examples -- overweight, c

Over a half-century ago obesity, and profound has become a silent monster that creeps from within. Americans entertain been preoccupied in the refinement fifty years with countless numbers of problems that it seems that we have forgotten ab protrude our really own waistline. But, what is the difference between over load and obesity? jibe to the gist for Disease for Control and Prevention overweight means that a person has a body mass index or BMI between 25 finished 29 and anything higher than a 30 is consider obese. In 2009 and 2010 the CDC stated that, much than 35% of U.S. men and women were obese(Carroll, Flegal, Kit, Ogden p.2). The obesity epidemic has reached 1/3 of the United States adult population as a result many have considered that the only way to manage this epidemic is by implying a rich tax. This tax allow target people who fit a specific profile, if they tumble the scale they moldiness pay. But the weight is not only targeted at adults, obesity has targete d the most vulnerable people of our society, our children. According to the CDC obesity and overweight affects 17% (or 12.5 million) of children and adolescents aged 219(p.1.) One day this generation of children will be adults and they should not be paying a tax because of their weight. Drastic measures emergency to be taken to treat childhood obesity and avoid a fat tax. Food consumption is a common body function that everybody must fulfill. But why do we eat? According to Levine and Billington, the authors of Why do we eat? A Neural Systems Approach, we eat for a variety of reasons, including energy needs, term of day, social setting, stress, boredom, palatability/reward, and food availability at little or no cost. Historically, studies of energy metabolism have focused ... ...Sabrina Morrison a RN points out that, teasing or negative verbal feedback is a risk grammatical constituent for the expandment of body dissatisfaction and eating disturbances such(prenominal) as buli mia, anorexia, and binge eating disorders (Lunner et al., 2000) (p. 203.) According to Morrison being bullied and teased will cause a child to develop bulimia, or anorexia. It is not a unknown fact that in severe cases where the persecution comes to such a cases that many children think of suicidal ideation and attempts associated with weight-biased teasing were two to trinity times higher among those teased then their nonteased peers. (Eisenberg et al., 2003) (p. 203.) Sadly children are having suicidal thoughts because of their weight and how much they are bullied at school. However, many think that the obesity and overweight epidemic is a problem that has been overrated and exaggerated. Childhood Obesity in The United States Essay examples -- overweight, cOver a half-century ago obesity, and overweight has become a silent monster that creeps from within. Americans have been preoccupied in the last fifty years with countless numbers of problems that it seems that we have forgotten about our very own waistline. But, what is the difference between overweight and obesity? According to the Center for Disease for Control and Prevention overweight means that a person has a body mass index or BMI between 25 through 29 and anything higher than a 30 is consider obese. In 2009 and 2010 the CDC stated that, more than 35% of U.S. men and women were obese(Carroll, Flegal, Kit, Ogden p.2). The obesity epidemic has reached 1/3 of the United States adult population as a result many have considered that the only way to manage this epidemic is by implying a fat tax. This tax will target people who fit a specific profile, if they tip the scale they must pay. But the weight is not only targeted at adults, obesity has targeted the most vulnerable people of our society, our children. According to the CDC obesity and overweight affects 17% (or 12.5 million) of children and adolescents aged 219(p.1.) One day this generation of children will be adults and they shou ld not be paying a tax because of their weight. Drastic measures need to be taken to treat childhood obesity and avoid a fat tax. Food consumption is a common body function that everybody must fulfill. But why do we eat? According to Levine and Billington, the authors of Why do we eat? A Neural Systems Approach, we eat for a variety of reasons, including energy needs, time of day, social setting, stress, boredom, palatability/reward, and food availability at little or no cost. Historically, studies of energy metabolism have focused ... ...Sabrina Morrison a RN points out that, teasing or negative verbal feedback is a risk factor for the development of body dissatisfaction and eating disturbances such as bulimia, anorexia, and binge eating disorders (Lunner et al., 2000) (p. 203.) According to Morrison being bullied and teased will cause a child to develop bulimia, or anorexia. It is not a unknown fact that in severe cases where the persecution comes to such a cases that many chil dren think of suicidal ideation and attempts associated with weight-biased teasing were two to three times higher among those teased then their nonteased peers. (Eisenberg et al., 2003) (p. 203.) Sadly children are having suicidal thoughts because of their weight and how much they are bullied at school. However, many think that the obesity and overweight epidemic is a problem that has been overrated and exaggerated.

International House of Pancake History :: essays research papers

IHOP was not always a multinational conglomerate. It is now hotshot of the nations leading sit down, cheap restraint chains. With over 1,000 locations world wide of the mark it is a commonly known restraint. As of recent IHOP has had a 52-week high of 39.4 and a low of 27.04. Recently, IHOP rang the bell of the NYSE in celebration of the kick-off of the National Pancake twenty-four hours (March 4) and the launch of a brand rejuvenation strategy for IHOP, which celebrates its 45th year in business this July. In honor of the occasion, Julia A. Stewart, President, CEO, COO rang the bell.Before laying step up the entire history of the global House of Pancake here is some simple background information IHOP Corp. is a family restaurant chain that serves a wide variety of breakfast, lunch and dinner selections. Offering more than 16 types of pancakes, as well as omelettes, breakfast specialties, burgers, chicken and steaks, IHOPs menu is designed to appeal to wad of all ages. IHOP re staurants are developed, operated and franchised by the Company. As of December 31, 2003, there were 1,165 IHOP restaurants in 48 states and Canada to be exact.In 1958, IHOP Corp. traces started up by opening of the first International House of Pancakes restaurant in a suburb of Los Angeles, Toluca Lake, California. The American eating public quickly took to the concept of a restaurant based on one of Americas favorite foods. pancakes. Within four years the number of units had increased to nearly 50, with many of the restaurants being operated by franchisees. That is incredible when you think about it since it takes a trance to start up a franchise. Obviously past, present, and future In 1961 the community became publicly traded under the name International House of Pancakes. The remainder of the decade was a time of acquisition for the company. The company acquired both food and non-food businesses during this period with a strategy of becoming "The Franchise Company." Be cause of these acquisitions and to reflect properly the diversified conglomerate become, the company adopted the name International Industries, Inc. in 1963. Restaurant brands under International Industries control during the 1960s included International House of Pancakes, Orange Julius, Loves Wood Pit Barbecue, florid Cup Coffee Shoppes, The Original House of Pies, Wil Wrights Ice Cream Shops, Woodys SmorgasBurger, The Dog House and Copper Penny. Non-food brands included The Big Brake Safety Center, The Golden Oaks solitude Homes, United Rent-Alls, House of Nine, and Sawyer College of Business.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Computers and Family Life :: Technology Essays

Computers and Family Life Computers have had both positive and negative effects on family life. As to a greater extent and more families are beginning to own there own reckoners, the effects of electronic computers are becoming more recognized. Negative effects include the insularism/isolation of family members, and parents bringing their work home instead of leaving it at work. Linking extended families together is one positive effect that computers have had on family life. boilersuit computers have had a negative effect on family life.One negative effect of computers on family life is less charitable contact between family members. In my family, all of us have our own computers that are kept in separate rooms. So if Im checking my mail on my computer, and my sister is in her room on her computer, we are isolated from each separate and cannot talk to each other face to face. This results in less face to face human contact between family members. But just having one com puter for a family can still cause less face-to-face contact. If one person is victimisation the computer no one else wants to just sit and do nothing while the computer is being used, so they will go to a antithetic room and each person will end up doing their own thing. Causing less family time, and less human contact within the family.The use of computer games is another thing that has caused less human contact between family members. Before computers were used in the home, if someone wanted to play a game, they usually had to occur at least one other family member to play a board game or card game with them. That forced families to send more time talking to each other. Now if someone wants to play a game that requires more than one person, they can just go on the computer and either play online against another person, or they can play against the computer. Playing games on the computer makes in easier to be isolated from physical contact with other family members. Now that you dont have to ask person in your family to play a game, most families dont spend as much(prenominal) time talking to each other and learning about each other. Another negative cause that computers have on family life is that many commonwealth now bring their work home with them instead of leaving it at work the way they used to.

Computers and Family Life :: Technology Essays

Computers and Family Life Computers construct had both positive and negative imprints on family life. As more and more families are root system to profess there own computers, the effects of computers are becoming more recognized. Negative effects include the separation/isolation of family members, and parents bringing their work theme instead of leaving it at work. Linking extended families together is one positive effect that computers have had on family life. Overall computers have had a negative effect on family life.One negative effect of computers on family life is less kind contact between family members. In my family, all of us have our own computers that are kept in separate rooms. So if Im checking my mail on my computer, and my sister is in her room on her computer, we are spaced from each other and cannot talk to each other face to face. This results in less face to face human contact between family members. But in effect(p) having one computer for a fa mily can still cause less face-to-face contact. If one person is using the computer no one else wants to still sit and do nothing while the computer is being used, so they result go to a different room and each person will end up doing their own thing. Causing less family time, and less human contact within the family.The use of computer games is another thing that has caused less human contact between family members. Before computers were used in the dwelling house, if someone wanted to play a game, they usually had to find at least one other family member to play a board game or card game with them. That forced families to send more time talking to each other. directly if someone wants to play a game that requires more than one person, they can just go on the computer and either play online against another person, or they can play against the computer. Playing games on the computer makes in easier to be isolated from physical contact with other family members. Now that you dont have to ask person in your family to play a game, most families dont spend as much time talking to each other and learning about each other. Another negative cause that computers have on family life is that many people now bring their work home with them instead of leaving it at work the way they used to.

Monday, May 27, 2019


Adinkra attributes, wish well many other visual symbols, have been used over many years to communicate, represent and characterize a myriad of ideas, beliefs and concepts. Originally created by the people of Gyaman, Adinkra has grown to become the most extensively used and widely known traditional symbolic art in Ghana and to an appreciable extent, West Africa. By c arfully considering the depth of wisdom in the meanings of these symbols, is not surprising that they are often linked with a server of several proverbial maxims.The very essence of the word Adinkra is farewell as such, every symbol that is encapsulated in the whole body of Adinkra communicates or corresponds to a uncommon message or idea. Documented history has it that, as far back as the nineteenth century, unique Adinkra symbols were used in customary and traditional rites of confederation to depict the ideological stance of that society as regards to the ceremony or event in question. The art was showcased in var ious forms during festivals, funerals, marriages among others.Today, the use of Adinkra has been widely all-embracing to cover almost every facet of life. In recent times, Adinkra symbols have become a suitable choice of specking the modern, competitive, and trendy Ghanaian attire lifestyle. Over the years, Adinkra has gone beyond traditional cloth-making spirits and has been fashionably incorporated into the designing of t-shirts, buttons, linen fabric clothes. Today, young people would prefer t-shirts with screen-printing inscriptions standardized Me firi Ghana, with an Adinkra uniform Gye Nyame boldly designed beneath.Indeed, some acclaimed Ghanaian fashion designers like Mawuli Okudzeto, Kofi Ansah among others, have received outside(a) recognition by carving such niches for themselves, with universal brand names like MKOGH and PKOG, just to mention a few. Beyond that, apparels like footwear have also had a taste of Adinkra art. Artisans who make local footwear like san dals, slippers and ahenema have also included these symbols in their designs. For instance, a locally made ahenema has a carefully designed Adinkra symbol of three concentric sound encircling each other, known as adinkrahene at the nose of each slipper.One other art is the design of bags with Adinkra symbols woven or sewn on the scratch with fabric, (often kente pieces). The most popular addition to this art collection is the use of these designs in making jewellery and other fashion accessories. It is popular to see rings, pendants, earrings, necklaces, anklets, beads and many others designed with symbols like ohene aniwa, epa, nkonsonkonson, etc. In Ghana, the Precious Mineral Marketing Company (PMMC) is a typical example of an enterprise in this regard.Thus, on the international stage, Adinkra symbols have been employed as one of, if not the best indigenous symbols that give all manner of clothing, a unique fashion identity substantially recognisable as truly Ghanaian. Quite a part from clothing, these symbols have formed part of locally designed attractive and visual art. This has been such that, in understructure of several Ghanaian sculptures, Adinkra has been one of the most recognisable themes. There many instances of metal and woodwind instrumenten sculpture designed into Adinkra. More often than not, these visual and fine arts have been used by individuals for decorative purposes.It is now commonplace to see a wall hanging in someones home, at the lobby of a corporate institution or in the sitting area of an afro-centric restaurant with the caption welcome and a popular symbol like Gye Nyame underneath it. Without a shred of doubt any Ghanaian who sees this in any institution in any distant part of the world, feels quite homely and comfortable, to some extent, immediately. Moreover, the designs of wooden plaques lately have also adopted Adinkra symbols. For instance, African institutions of late present Adinkra-designed plaques to individuals an d entities, as gifts and awards for splendid performances.Woodcarvers as at today, still design stools for domestic as well as traditional purposes with these popular symbols. In Akan traditional homes, stools often known as asesedwa are carved out of wood with these designs. Today as a unique of catching up with the west, local artisans have modernized their design of home furniture placed in areas like the living room, dining room and the study. Beautiful and attractive-looking sets are being carved daily. A common example is wooden coffee-table, which has an Adinkra symbol like sankofa at the set up with a glass plane on the surface.Hence it is ordinary to see the prolific use of Adinkra in fine and visual art because of the inherent artistic merits they possess. In present day, the use of symbols for trademarks and emblems cannot be over-emphasized. In corporate branding and marketing, many institutions have resorted to the use of symbols, both tactile and visual, as a mark of exclusivity and Adinkra are symbols of no exception. There are countless examples of institutions of all sorts who have adopted these symbols as logos, emblem, etc.In Ghana, for instance, a corporate institution like HFC Bank uses the symbol ebankese as its corporate logo. Interestingly, Vodafone Ghana has designed their recharge cards such that whichever denomination has a long strip Adinkra symbols in front of the card. A popular plastics company by name Strong Plast Ltd also uses the popular symbol, Gye Nyame as a brand name for its plastic chairs. A very popular dredge mill also uses sankofa as the brand name of it flour. On a lighter side, along the coastal area it is fun to see fishermen decorate their canoes with these symbols as an interesting way of ownership.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Art Analysis: Claude Monet

Painting Description Essay Humanities 110 in that location are galore(postnominal) pictures in the world and as a modern society that is everyday evolving we must be able to describe the movies we see. In doing so we can distill the culture and value it represents and only then can we fully understand these different cultures and human values that are presented throughout history in the numerous contrivances that are created. In my eyes any type of emotional expression can be appreciated. Recently I came upon a headstoneing by the Painter Claude Monet who was the basis for impressionism.This painting was awe inspiring and brought my mind to deeply fathom the pursuit of knowledge and power. In order to fully describe this painting I will use the formal elements of paint texture, color, credit line and lastly topic. Lets start with composition the placement or arrangement of visual elements or ingredients in a work of art, as distinct from the subject of a work. It can too be thought of as the organization of the elements of art according to the principles of art. The composition of the painting was very unique and helps to rate an image that burns in your mind.The shapes of the painting are not very structured. Its impossible to look over that objects in the paining were close to real- life scale through eye perception thus being just about virtual(prenominal). Another factor that made the painting close to realistic was the movement shown in the painting made by brush strokes to give an impression of wind through the flying field of grass that also went through the bushes and the tree. There is depth in the painting that is created by shadowing and balance of lighter areas.The bushes are asymmetrical and the tree is slay to one side more specifically the middle right. There is big open space of green field to the middle left , top middle and stinker right and on the bottom of the middle left is where the bushes reside, furthermore the top left is where the blurred castle is placed and horizontal to that is what seems to be a Classified that drifts to the nautical. Throughout the painting there is green everywhere which unifies the painting. It more predominately is unified with color in juxtaposition with shapes.Furthermore the red saturation that is presented in the shrubbery or bushes provides variety Another element to the painting is the texture which is very sloppy exclusively it is an impressionistic painting so that is expected which doesnt mean its a beautiful and high skilled painting. The Sense provided leaves for the paint to be blended but also has umteen brush strokes which gives uniqueness to the texture. Most objects are barely visible but can be somewhat recognized. Other areas of the painting are smooth in order to provide rest to the eyes. Paintings Anton exist without color whether there is any color or none at all.In this painting we see more warm and complimentary colorise. The very limited analo gous colors helped to created subtlety in the painting which played off the complimentary colors very well. Some of the colors used most included red, orange, blue, and purple, green, yellow. The colors were also very natural and consistent with being realistic. The colors blended very well and contrasted making a very alive background that made you feel as if you were there in this big field and wind blowing in your face and he ocean being close off of the Classified.Lastly one element that brings in the painting together is line which provides many things to help create peace, action, and variety. In the painting the balance of having visible and implied lines help to truly evoke the emotion of the painting and as well as the mental representation that this is semi realistic but Just an impression and not a duplicate of the exact scene seen. The painting is not only painted but created by shapes that tie in the picture in that all at oneness a painting possesses. There are diago nal lines leading to the pure red shrubbery creating action.The vertical line that the tree presents counteracts the horizontal line of the Classified and horizon. This creates for an amazing painting that is pleasant to ones eye. The painting contains numerous amounts of blurred lines. The horizontal line helps to create the horizon which further creates depth and evokes the gradation presented which is the dark yellow sun setting and playing of the white of the sky and the sun disappearing . This also creates the distinctive path room the castle to the ocean and a depth perception that there is a beach off of the Classified.The horizontal lines in the ocean portray its mistiness. Open lines all blended in together. Lastly though we must consider line plays an important role in paintings, because this is a impressionist painting, color is placed in a higher role. All in all we must take in the culture of the world through art and history and anything else that helps understand eac h other and further evolve society maybe one day we will create or further mend the tools that help us describe paintings or anything else.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Hunger Games Theme

What would we do if we were chosen at random to fight for our life? Would we just let it witness? Would we fight back and try our best to keep out arrogance? Or would we do whatever it takes just to stay alive, even if it means losing target of who we actually ar? These are all decisions that Peeta and Katniss, two kids from a city called Panem had to make all by themselves. The legend The starve Games by Suzanne collins has galore(postnominal) themes, but the most important overall, is the importance of keeping dignity and humankind while fighting for our life.In the Hunger Games, a sixteen year former(a) girl named Katniss and a sixteen year old boy named Peeta are chosen to go into the Hunger Games, where they will fight for their lives. During past years, competitors in the Hunger Games would do a number of unspeakable things in order to survive. Peeta however is the complete opposite. He wants to bankrupt with dignity. First off, in the novel The Hunger Games, by Suza nne Collins, many things go wrong in Panem, the society that the main characters Katniss and Peeta live in. For example, their society is filled with many things such as war, starvation, poverty, and violence.Peeta and Katnis have been taught since they were little that no matter what you are doing you have to keep your dignity while doing it. Even if it is fighting to the death. The way that both Peeta and Katniss have grown up comes in unfeignedly handy during the Hunger Games. It makes it extremely easier for them to keep their dignity during the games. However, many competitors will do anything in order to survive, wouldnt you? Peeta however, is very different he believes that if he is going to slip away, he should at least go with his dignity.This means that while everyone else loses their minds, he will still think straight and wont do anything outrageous in order to survive. For example, a girl from district 9 said heres some advice, just stay alive (127). This retell show s that she believes the only thing that matters is staying alive. She will risk anything to live, even her humanity and dignity. Peeta however, would basically rather die with his dignity than live knowing he completely confounded his dignity and humanity during the Hunger Games. To Peeta, his dignity is just as important as his own life.The competitors in the Hunger Games family and friends are also loosing spite of their humanity and dignity even though it may not seem like it to them. The family members show their difference of dignity when all of them just sit back and larn as their love ones battle for their lives. It is just one big game to them. Celebrations are thrown if their loved one kills another persons loved one. They dont even comfort the other family at all. Everyone just parties while one family is having one of the worst possible days of their lives. Watching as somebodys child is being killed isnt right.Imagine if our society was like this. We wouldnt just sit back and watch as our family and friends die before our eyes, would we? The novel The Hunger Games is similar to the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding in a few ways. The most important however is the characters loss of humanity and dignity, which occurs in both novels. In Lord of the Flies, the large groups of boys that are stranded on the island lose sight of what is really important to them. They get caught up in trying to stay alive and doing whatever it takes to stay alive.Jack, from Lord of the Flies, ran around chanting Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Spill her blood (69). This quote shows us that the boys are starting to lose their dignity. This is exactly what happens in Suzanne Collins, Hunger Games. All of the competitors chosen to compete in the annual Hunger Games get caught up in killing people to stay alive that they forget who they really are inside. Ralph, the boy from the novel Lord of the Flies is very similar to Peeta, the boy from the novel Hunger Games in many ways.For example, both Ralph and Peeta are one of the only people to keep their humanity and dignity while they are stranded on an island or in this case fighting to the death in a huge arena. All of the boys in the novel Lord of the Flies lose their dignity and humanity except for Ralph and piggy who stay sane. This is very similar to the Hunger Games. Everyone in districts one through eleven go crazy and forget who they are except for two people. Only Peeta and katniss who are from District 12 keep their dignity while struggling to stay alive. Peeta says at least let me die with my dignity (167).This quote shows us that Peeta wont lose his humanity and dignity no matter what. In conclusion, the novel The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins shows us how society could end up if we lose sight of our dignity. She shows us that just because something bad could happen doesnt mean that we have to forget what really matters to us, or even forget who we truly are behind all of the violen t, or just plain old fake acts that we would have to put on just to live through the Hunger Games. She shows us through the eyes of Peeta that even when something gets tough, we just have to work through it and keep our head held high.

Friday, May 24, 2019

The Positive and Negative Impacts of Technology on Family Life

The Positive and Negative Impacts of Technology on Family Life Is technology tearing apart family life? school text messaging, social networking, and online video be changing the itinerary parents and children see the pieceand severally other. There are many technologies in to mean solar days world that are widely drill non fitting as a want, but as a necessity of life. This term paper depart commission on relationship between family life and computer technologies, which clear become the most widely used technology in the world due to its flesh of functions including SNS, mailing, online personal video chatting, and assignment completing tools.Computer technologies own both positive and dis fall by the wayside effectuate on family life. As more and more families are beginning to own their own computers (computer internet users in North America reached to about 78. 3 %) , the set up of technologies on family life is becoming more easily identifi sufficient. This te rm paper will come across both the benefit and negative effects of using technologies on family life. There are the negative effects which include the isolation of family members, and parents contributeing their work home.On the other hand, linking relatives together is one positive effect that technologies have on family life, and being flarely updated on other family members status is likewise a huge benefit. Overall, the benefits of using technologies outweigh the negative effects. one(a) negative effect of computers on family life is less face-to-face contact between family members. In most families, each family member has their own computers or smart phones that are kept in their own rooms.Nowadays, the functions of computers and smart phones are not just limited to internet surfing, and assignment tools. They are also widely used for social networking services (SNS), such as Facebook, Skype, and Twitter just to name a few. As a result of the increasing snip consumption of using the functions on computers, family members are now more isolated from each other and cannot talk to each other face to face as often as before when technologies were not as important in day to day living. Even when there is only one computer per family, there is an interruption with family life.If one person is using the computer, then other family members do not want to just wait while the computer is being used, so they will go to a different room and each person will end up using the computers at their own leisure. The use of computer bizs is another thing that has reduced human contact between family members. Before computers were used in the home, if someone wanted to play a game, they usually had to find at least one other family member to play a maturate game or card game with them. That forced families to spend more time talking to each other.Now if someone wants to play a game that requires more than one person, they can just go on the computer and either play onli ne against another person, or they can play against the computer. Playing games on the computer makes it easier to be isolated from physical contact with other family members. Now that you dont have to ask person in your family to play a game, most families dont spend as much time talking to each other and learning about each other. Another negative cause that computers have on family life is that many people now bring their work home with them instead of leaving it at work the way they used to.Peoples work is now invading the privacy of their home. People find that it is easier and more convenient to work at home, so they bring their work home allowing it to invade their home. When people bring home their work, it separates families by causing parents to spend more time at home working, and less time with their family causing parents to not know as much about what is going on in their childrens lives. Bringing work home separates families, making them not as close knit as they woul d be if they spent more time together talking.Computer technologies have not just had negative effects on families they have also had some positive ones. The use of Social Networking Service (SNS) through computer is one of the positive effects that technologies have had on families. With the use of computer functions such as e-mail, Messengers, Twitter, and Skype, families can take care of things that they would otherwise have to leave the home to take care of. Using SNS also allow families to communicate with other family members who might not live close by.For example, I Skype (free online webcam chatting) my father in Korea at least twice a week. Without the use of SNS I wouldnt be able to communicate with him nearly as much because phone bills would be too expensive for me to afford. So, because of SNS I am able to remain close to my father purge though he is in Korea, and I am in Canada. A second positive effect that technologies have had on families is the use of instant tex ting service. This allows families to talk to each other and have a fairly normal conversation with each other even though they might not be in the vicinity.I personally use instant text messaging services to talk to my parents, my sister, and my relatives regularly because it keeps them updated on what is incident with me on a daily basis. While I am at school, I am still able to stay in dapple with everyone masking home without having to call each one of them separately. For many people who are away at school, instant texting services allow them to stay in touch with friends and family even though they are not at home. A third positive effect that technologies have had on families is computer web pages (Facebook).Web pages allow families to post pictures of themselves and other family members so that everyone in the family can go to the web page and view the pictures. My sister has a web page that explains things about her, and it has pictures of her and friends. One of my othe r uncles who lives in Korea also has his own web page. On his web page, he has pictures of his baby daughter. By going to my uncles web page, I have been able to see pictures of my baby cousin as she has grown and changed. Many other families have web pages similar to my families that they use to watch their families change even though they are not in the same country.In conclusion, the negative effects of using technologies posed can essentially be overcome by use of SNS technology through computer or phone. When there is lack of human contact between the family members, then Skype can be used to make out online face-to-face chatting. The use of technologies also proved to be more efficient when each family member want to be updated on each others status. Without the use of technology, instant messaging system would not be possible, so the relatives or family members would not be able to interact with each other as easily.APA 6th variant reference 1. Miniwatts Marketing Group (MA RCH 31, 2011). WORLD INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION STATISTICS. Retrieved from http//www. internetworldstats. com/stats. htm 2. Chris Barylick (June 21, 2001). Technology and Social Isolation. Retrieved from http//www. irchelp. org/irchelp/misc/tech. html 3. Gary Small, M. D. (June 19, 2009). Is Technology Fracturing Your Family. Retrieved from http//www. psychologytoday. com/blog/brain-bootcamp/200906/is-technology-fracturing-your-family.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

TUBA: A Waray Heritage

They suck up a lot of these be suffer of its effects that shtup make them high or drunk and makes them forget their problems. Not plainly problematic race do these, but in like manner those people who want to gain fun, non grappleing the effects that will happen to some parts of their body of deglutition too much of it. Too much intake of these hard liquors can cause kidney cancer which makes it more expensive when it comes to treatment. This illness wont happen if they recognize the right liquor to drink. In Visas, Wary people, who live in Samara-letter have their own product called bass horn or in English, Coconut Red Wine.Its much cheaper than the there mark liquors because its easily made and local, but, it gives health bene touchs to the drinker and can also make a person drunk and healthy. Tuba is among the best wines in the world which provides quadruplex wine benefits that our body can get. They also have this tradition in Visas wherein Warrantys use to drink Tu ba every Sunday as a reward to their hard work during weekdays. They call it Domingo. In Luzon, it is known as Lambing but in Visas, it is known as Tuba, Ball or Balling and the only thing which makes the twain of them different is the color and the mixture.In the Visas region, particularly in Letter and Samara, the Tuba is called Coconut Red Wine because of its color it is bolshy in color because it is mixed with sputter (a Mangrove tree that is reddish in color). On the new(prenominal)wise hand, the Tuba in Luzon is called Coconut Vodka and it is Just a pure sap and no shin mixed in it and is almost colorless and some beats milky white in color. Wars are producing a lot of good quality sousaphone, ball, and balling. Tuba or Coconut Wine has been in the lives of many Filipinos for a long-time now. It has been drunk by their ancestors before the Spaniards came.Today, we have indulged ourselves in the internationally acclaimed liquors like gins, vodkas, rums and the popular beer. This, however, depends if one can stomach such liquid into going all- out overnight but, most people say, drink moderately. But if every person who drinks liquors would try the different flavor and smack of Tuba, which would surely give a new flavor to a persons next-day hangover, they will love this different kind of drink. But its the local flavor that counts and it certainly gives an old-school taste in todays modern Samara-Letter.But what is more interesting is the fact that this Tuba is to Just like other liquors because this has an extra-ordinary power which can help people in many modes. This is the reason why the enquiryers got curious or so Tuba. The secret behind this why is this still admired by others aside from the fact that this is already a new age in the society. To help not only the business persons, but as well as the economy of the country, this is being exported into other countries. So who would say that this is Just a simple drink that doesnt have a ny benefits at all aside from giving happiness to every person that drink this?Be admired and be amazed by the spirit of the Wary heritage of Tuba. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The research aims to answer the following questions which are also the main focus of this research 1. What is the process of making bass horn? 2. What is the reason why it still exists and patronized by others? 3. What are the health benefits of Tuba? translation OF TERMS Management or Mismanaging the Tuba gatherer a person who prepares the collection of cocoa palm sap and climbs the coconut tree to collect the sap.Sagging(scythe) the knife used by a Management to cut the coconut visor. Sap The nectar that comes out when you cut an inflorescence or unopened coconut lower. Bark In Letter, it is the bark of a tree that is reddish-tan in color. According to Wisped it comes from a red Allan tan bark tree, a kind of red mangrove tree. In other parts of Visas they called it Tuning tree, a mangrove believed to b e the best bark. Another is Bake , also a mangrove tree. This is used for coolant and preservative as it rootage fermentation.Paso- a small and short bamboo tube with a diameter enough to fit the size of the bud, also called song in the western part of Letter. Domingo- a tradition in Visas wherein Warrantys used to drink Tuba every Sunday as a reward to their hard work during weekdays. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS The research focuses on the study about the Tuba or Coconut Red Wine and do not covers on other type of Filipino wine. The study is only limited on the places within Samara and Letter because these are the nearest places from the place of study, the Saint Paul School of Business and Law.The research only aims to know the information that can answer the questions stated in the Statement of the Problem. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Coconut Red Wine is a traditional Philippine wine came from the coconut tree. Another type of drink we can get from coconut is Lambing or coconut vodk a and is merely known in the part of Luzon. The tuba and lambing is closely related. They only differ in mixture and color. A study about lambing made by TED Case Studies dated on 2005 entitled Lambing A Philippine drink.It covers the process of making the alcoholic beverage,Lambing which is known for its potency. It is primarily produced in Guenon Province of the Philippines,or about 143 km southeast of Manila. It focuses on Cultural Relevance, governing body Involvement, Environmental Impact, and Market Penetration and Potential. The only thing it differs from our research is that our research is limited only in Region 8 , particularly in Samara-Letter. And our research discusses about the process in making Tuba and other related features about it.On the other hand, they are similar in such a way that the both researchers studied about the liquors that can we get from Coconut Sap. BODY The process of making tuba starts when the tuba gatherer called management climbs a coconut tre e. While on top the coconut tree, he would sit on the base of palms frond and looks for a newly sprouting bud of bunch of coconut flower that is till completely encased in its taking (green pod). The bud of coconut fruit (inflorescence) is lopped finish off by slicing its very crownwork using a razor-sharp droopy (scythe) to cause the sap to ooze out from the bud.The stalk of the wounded bud is then pushed shore to force it to bend and to position its tip to point downward making it easy to collect the dripping Juice as it drips. A container called Paso (small and short bamboo tube with a diameter enough to fit the size of the bud, also called song in the western part of Letter) is then attached by inserting the wounded tip of the bud not the mouth of Paso and certain by wrapping around a sheath of giant (coconut sheath) and tying it securely with lapis (strips from coconut fronds bark or strip of rattan).This is done to prevent the rainfall from contaminating with the collect ed sap if the rain comes. With the availability of plastic cellophane and synthetic straw string, giant and lapis are sometimes no longer used as wrapper and binder. Paso is then left hanging on the tip of the bud for the whole day to collect the slowly dripping sap. The management would climb down and proceed to another coconut tree to do the same routine. The management (tuba gatherer) lops off the bud of coconut fruit (inflorescence) using a razor-sharp sagging (scythe).Refreshing the wound will assure consecutive oozing of sap from the bud. By afterwardsnoon, the management would climb underpin to gather the Juice collected in the Paso and rain cats and dogs it into the hangout or Kuwait (big bamboo pole container) brought along by the management which he hung behind his shoulder (a wooden hook that fits the shoulder is attached on it, making it easy to carry up and down in the tree). The emptied Paso is then cleaned using a potholing (bamboo plunger, also called Paton r pat e in Along) that would scrape off the sediments left behind and the assorted kinds of insects that came into it.The waste is thrown out by tapping the potholing on the frond of coconut palm. Then the tip of the bud is sliced off once more to reopen the wound so that the coconut Juice would continue to ooze out. This is necessary because an old wound retards the oozing out of sap from the bud. The Paso is placed back on the tip of the bud before the management would climb down. Everyday thereafter, the management routinely tend to the same coconut bud until bout half(prenominal) of its length is totally sliced off and the buds taking (pod) would start to burst open and the beauty (tentacle-like stalks) inside are no longer tender.When freshly garner from the coconut tree, tuba is milky-white in color, tastes attractive, and effervescent (continuously producing tiny bubbles creating a cream-colored froth). This freshly gathered tuba, with no tuning in it, is said to be good for nu rse mothers (as last resort). The unblended tuba will last only for one day as it immediately turns sour on the next day that lastly becomes Susann tuba on overall days more. If the freshly gathered tuba is mixed with tuning (a. . A. Bark), it tastes bitter- sweetness and turns reddish-orange in color. If tuning is added as soon as possible, as if the Juice is still in the potholing or song, the coconut sap is immediately prevented from becoming sour, instead the tuning-blended Juice would ferment and would be aged over time to become ball or balling. A tuba that is freshly fermented with tuning and still effervescent is called bag-Eng data (a day- old or freshly gathered tuba).After about 12 hours of fermentation, the effervescence tops and the coconut wine becomes ball (or liana in some other places), meaning the wine is a full pledge tuba. For the rootage 2 weeks, tuba is filtered by siphoning to decant it out from its storage, leaving behind the laws (sediments) that settles at the bottom of the container. After a month of fermentation, tuba is then called a Balling (aged coconut red wine) that is darker in color and tastes and smells like a fruit red wine. The longer it is stored the better it becomes.Tuba must be stored under shade, better if not totally exposed to any form of light, that is why some tuba maker bury heir Jars of tuba in the ground or overcompensate them inside the house and covered the Jars with black cloth to avoid the souring bacteria to subsist that causes the souring of tuba. The container must also be filled up to its brim, devoid of any air inside, and tightly sealed the opening to prevent the airborne souring bacteria from contaminating the coconut wine. A contaminated tuba will tastes sour and becomes vinegar called Susann tuba (coconut vinegar). Http//www. Letter- tourism. Attachable. Net/Letter-tuba/, 2013) Drinking coconut wine is good for the health however extreme consumption of it may cause several health risks and is als o gizzards. It is always important that you drink moderately. The following are only some of its health benefits Promotes Longevity. Wine drinkers are observed to have a 34 portion lower mortality rate than beer drinkers. Reduces Heart Attack Risk. Moderate wine drinkers who suffer high blood pressure are 30 percent less liable(predicate) to experience nerve center attacks than non-wine-drinkers.Lowers Risk of Heart Disease. Red wine tannins contain proclamation, compounds commonly found in red wines which are good for the blood vessels and protect against heart disease. Reduces Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate wine drinkers are 30 percent less likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Lowers Risk of Stroke. People who consume moderate amount of alcohol are likely to experience of about 50 percent possibility drop from suffering a blood-clot related stroke. Cuts Risk of Cataracts.Moderate drinkers are less likely to get cataracts than nondrinkers while those wh o consume wine are 43 percent less likely to develop cataracts than those mainly drinking beer. Cuts Risk of Colon Cancer. Moderate wine consumption cuts the risk of colon cancer by 45 percent. Slows Brain Decline. Brain functions dramatically decline on nondrinkers than on moderate wine drinkers. Gaining these wine benefits is particularly simple. All you need to do is choose the finest wine that suits your taste and surely gives the wine benefits mentioned above.Eastern Visas has the premium wine from fresh coconut saps which is carefully processed to give you a delicious experience of its clear, static and unique taste. (http// www. Vacationland. Com/, 2013) In Visas, there are at least ternion common ways of serving tuba one is Signal, another is may pursuer and the manly purr. Tag is that serving of tuba poured in the glass. ) Signal tuba is blended with lots of cola like coke, Pepsi and etc. It makes the wine very sweet and fruity to your palate and throat. The drinkers usu ally use this way when tuba has that Eskimos (Souris) taste so as to mask the taste.This is also used when drinkers are not withstand enough to savor the strong taste of good (not Souris) tuba. Another way is May chaser (a. K. A. Disinterest) tuba is also served with a chaser of cola or any sweet drink, such as Juice, chocolate drink, sweetened coffee, etc. The only difference is that the cola is not blended to Tuba. The chaser is immediately served after swigging tuba. They dare to savor first the true taste of tuba then iron out their squirming face with a chaser. And the last one is called Purr- from the Spanish password purr (meaning pure).One has to swig a tag of pure tuba without sipping any chaser afterward. This will surely give you the truest meaning of saying Ayah to a drink. This is also considered the best way of drinking Tuba because in this way you will surely taste the original taste or the strong taste of Tuba. METHODOLOGY The topic about the most famous liquor in Samara-Letter came into the minds of the researchers. The study of the topic was more on interview and researching information from the internet and trig-media than on disseminating survey questionnaires.The researchers interviewed Managements from different area of the region, namely from Bases, Tactical and Marabou to know the process of making tuba and their secrets behind its flavor or taste. The researchers went to Tactical City, Letter and interviewed suppliers/importers of Tuba to know their way of selling it also some of the small store owners of Tuba businesses. The rest of the information was gathered through reading the newspaper, earshot to the news and surfing in the internet. And also through the information gathered, the researchers analyzed those data and organized the information taken up.SUMMARY The researchers learned the process of making Tuba by interviewing the manufacturers of it called Management. Tuba came from a coconut tree and is made through a process o f extracting the sap of an unopened coconut bud. It has a stinging sweet and bittersweet taste. The tip of the bud is lopped and the pale Juice allowed trickling into bamboo containers. A sturdy tree yields about a gallon of liquid daily. From coconut water, comes a sirup concentrate for tuba. Tuba is a sweet, fresh or mildly fermented sap taken from tapping the young expanded flowers of the coconut.The researchers also learned the health benefits of drinking Tuba. It promotes longevity, reduces heart attack risk, lowers risk of heart disease, reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, lowers risk of stroke, cut risks of cataracts and cut risks of colon cancer. The Tuba still exist up to the innovate because of its uniqueness in terms of taste, aroma, and also of its price compared to other wine. And also it is considered as one of the beneficial wine in the world. The researchers also learned the three common ways of serving tuba, one is Signal, and another is my chaser and the manly purr.T he researchers successfully answered the question they were curious of. CONCLUSION The researchers concluded that tuba is preferable than other liquors because of the health benefits it gives to the drinker. The reason also why it still exist because of the cheap price and the benefit it gives to drinker, not only to the drinker, but also to the economy of the country through exports to other countries. The researchers also concluded that the process of making tuba is clean but hard to make because of the tall coconut trees that the managements climb every day Just to make it.But, its worth it because it can help our country, not only our country, but also to the health of each person who drinks it making him/her fitter. testimonial Based on the data gathered and the study conducted, the researchers recommend that the business persons engaged with the business on Tuba making, as well as to the administration to continue exporting this kind of wine into other countries abroad o tha t this would be recognized by other people outside the country. And also, due to the continuous exportation of Tuba, the Philippines will be more famous and popular than it is today.The researchers also recommend to other students who are graduate and undergraduate of business courses to engage in this type of business, the Tuba Making. Aside from the additional income that It can brought to themselves as well as to the country, it may also help the people who drink this to become healthier because of the benefits it can gives us. The researchers recommend also hat related researchers with regards to the topic should be conducted so that this type of Filipino heritage, the tuba should be more known in our country.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Britney Spears or Spear Britney

Manufactured bands have brought us some fab solo acts in the way of Mr Keating, and Robbie. Where would the screaming lady friendies be with out them? J17 magazine.The truth is as considerable as they arent screaming and waving their under go against anywhere near me I dont honestly have a problem with teeny-boppers. Of course I enjoy the periodical joke about some larger than living band with a talent count of minus 50 scarcely they dont aggravate me as such(prenominal) you might return. Ignorance is bliss But if I HAD to rant about anything it would be about manufacture and their music. And so to progress the rant really good I might as well exaggerate some of my views and thoughts to make me appear like a true cynic and hater of all that is pop.So I sit down in my room staring at my CD collection, tossing away the couple that dont do me proud. So with my Ricky Martin and Spice Girls album on one side (carefully self-possessed on the desk, teetering dangerously over the b in) and my System Of A Down and Blink 182 on the other I sat down to write this article.OK. Ever stop to think about how much hormonally-charged energy you put into the quick quips and biting banter? Your life would be considerably more than productive if you took some, whats that word again, oh thats it action. Im not suggesting that you cauterise some fresh teeny-boppers. There are laws against it. Yep even in that state of the US. But if youre so fed up of manufactured bands and this article awakes the rebel in you, then I say Go Forth, join a band and top the charts OK fine by chance its not that easy precisely its more productive than bitchin about the manufactured lot with your mates.In this world of MTV soundbites (we are not worthy) and insanely uncreative lyrics, the manufactured band and the manufactured singer fly the coop rampant They are people who are pooled together, not because they excel musically, provided because their looks and personality can be pigeon-h oled to fit a type cute, funny, naughty, or sexy. Its further that simple. Musical passion is generally becoming a fading art, with most people in it for nothing more than the funds and the quick-fix of fame. Fame, you see, very rarely comes from the forte of the music.A few years ago, Britney Spears exploded onto the scene. Her virginal yet strangely flirty lyrics had paedophiles crossways the world intrigued. Here was a 16 year old daughter who loved Jesus Christ, sung about being hit and claimed to be a virgin. It was all sofan-bl**dy-tastic.Britney went on to sell lots of records, preach Satans teachings and get to wear increasingly skimpy outfits in her music videos. With this much success, the clones were bound to follow. And, lo and behold, they did. Christina Aguilera was the first to jump on the pink-coated bandwagon, and one of many to ride Carson Dalys gear-stick to TRL glory. The girl could certainly sing, but she was the blondest Hispanic in history, and the most annoying anorexic this side of Ally McBeal. They became more and more annoying. Is that humanly possible? I hear you say but as I say if in doubt turn to the merry U S of A. Enter Mandy Moore. Moore was about 12 and could barely even skreak well. She sang a song about missing a guy like candy, which is just plain sad. Nobody misses anyone like candy. I wonderment what Id miss my pin-ups like after my brains are gobbled by the undead teeny boppers. Mmmm..The manufactured craze is continuing as I write this dread-filled article. Oily men across the industry are lining their pockets and making an absolute mint from girls who dream about cute guys and Dawson. Why is it so big? Well its not because its so cutting edge. Its because girls are insecure. And popular culture capitalises on that. Girls think maybe if I go out and buy that new lipstick, Ill fit in. Or maybe if I watch this show or listen to that music, Ill be popular. I mean, look somewhat you now (thats right just blatantl y stare at them), every one of these girls is incredibly insecure. You cant even speak your mind anymore without stomping on somebodys feelings. You make a Five break up joke and the teeny-boppers have a fit. You make a Two Pac (deceased) joke and the Hip-Hop posse kindly raise their middle finger. And any comments of Marilyn Mansons femininity impart have Satanists swarming around threatenin to send the forces of evil to your abode.In the States, songs about coming on over and getting hit in the face are all the rage. In Britain, the purport is love. If youre ever making a boyband, be sure they sing songs about love and sex. If youre planning on making a girl group, make sure they sing songs about love and sex. Really its not that hard. The dudes on Popstars make it look so hard. However, if you plan on plucking an underage girl from school (and there are laws against it) in the hopes that youll create the next Britney, make sure she sings songs about genies in bottles and being unvirginised.As I was surfin the wonderful light up and followin the proverbial yellow brick road to all that is fake(with a capital F ladies and gentlemen) I discovered that Britain is just as bad as the States in damage of manufactured bands. Theres a deep-seated history involved in the art of making boybands. In the seventies, the Bay City Rollers were all the rage. Essentially, they were ugly Scottish dudes who wore plaid costumes (kilt-like but not quite) and sang really badly (they have sound clips on the site.sayin they sing badly is like saying o the safe is a bit chilly). But the teenyboppers loved them, simply because the machine trained them to love them. Its like that mind-washing scene in A Clockwork Orange. Impressionable kids are force-fed a cocktail of bland music, and few of them have the in narrateectual tools or inquisitive nature, and think to themselves erwhy. Well, its very simple. These guys make money, and the formula is easy to reproduce. And people will b uy anything if its well-packaged.Sheep. BAAAABest not to think about it too much. It hurts my b r a i n Fact is, these bands make great money for their producers, all by living up to a fallacious image. Its easy money, and while the fat cats grow obese, were the ones who are losing out. Because when genuinely talented performers fail to rally a niche in the busy marketplace, well be overcome with these beasts.Ill be honest, though. I like a wide range of music. any(prenominal)times Ill be short-winded away (OK, hooked) by a boyband tune or maybe Ill even shock myself and buy the track(id like to stress that this is not a shit occurrence, and any tracks I do waste my money on tend to be incinerated by some Satanist folk that hang around these parts.)OK, allow me be completely honest I prefer rock/punk music to virtually any other type of music (yes, even opera). Now, I like a lot of respected artists as well and I think I have fairly good taste when it comes to rating music, but theres something alluring about Pop. Im not saying the music is necessarily good, but it is very effective. I realise that its manufactured, that its sugary and the song lyrics are dud, but tell me you yourself havent caught the Pop bug at some point. These songs linger in your mind, even more so than Papa Roach screaming about how much life sucks and how we should all die. Not dissin PRoach or anythingCoby, Dude, You RuleThat strange mixture of superficial positivity and cynical marketing works for some. Not me, but it does for someahh an shipwreck survivor yet again. But while I wont admit too vehemently that I enjoy cheesy pop ballads, Id like to celebrate some of the manufactured artists here in this article where no-one in real life will ever know.Our group up for discussion isWestlife, or using their pronunciation, Westloife.Flying without flyEverybodys looking for a somethingOne thing that makes it all completeYoull find it in the strangest placesPlaces you never knew it co uld beSome find it in the face of their childrenSome find it in their lovers eyesWho can deny the joy it bringsWhen youve found that special thingYoure flying without wingsThis is Westlifes entry into the we condone drug wont halls of chart history. I know that Im only flying without wings after ten too many beers (so thats 10 beers in total yea). Its obvious that these subvert young men are either promoting illegal substances (S club Seven wannabes) or singing about love. Whichever way you look at it, the song is fairly damn kooky. All right, its sweet and touching. This sucks.And to conclude.o wait someones at the door. Abruptly stands taping Ricky and Spice-eys into the bin. Looks out windowAnd now Ive been called away by a knock at my door. And the person knocking is a God-lover telling me I need the light of God. Ive been thinkingGod is a lot like a boyband. race go on about him 24/7 and plaster his posters on their bedrooms, but has he ever written his own tracks?

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Exploring the Concept of Project Appraisals Essay

Project appraisal is a generic term that refers to the border of assessing, in a structured way, the episode for proceeding with a project or proposal. In short, project appraisal is the effort of calculating a projects viability.1 It often involves comparing dissimilar options, using economic appraisal or some other decision analysis technique. Or in other terms it is Systematic and comprehensive limited review of the economic, environmental, financial, social, technical and other such aspects of a project to determine if it will meet its objectives.Project appraisal is a structured, systematic and a comprehensive process to assess the financial, economic, social, environmental and technical viability of a project. The quality of the project appraisal is the main determinant of success of a project. As per the experience of the World Bank, unwell appraised projects have seven times more probability of failure within three years of their implementation as compared to well apprai sed projects.As all projects compete for scarce resources, good quality investment appraisal of projects, quantification of risks of different stakeholders and well laid out strategies to manage risks expedite financial closure and timely purpose of projects. In the developing economies, the infrastructure sectors such as Power, Roads and Highways, Telecommunications, Ports, Airports, Water Supply, Irrigation and Shipping, Railways and Sewerage systems require large investments. Adoption of sound project appraisal methodologies expedites investment in these sectors which are crucial for economic growth.In the banker perspective a structured analytical tool to take a credit decision, the basic premise of an appraisal are to assess and analyze the promoters, viability of the business macro & micro environment of the business, business financials various risk and its mitigations, permission and approval form restrictive bodies,http// raisal.htmlixzz2IgVun

Monday, May 20, 2019

Ebay Turnaround Strategy Essay

The company known as eBay, which started in 1995, grew significantly within a decade to become the number one e-commerce site in the world by sales revenue. In 2008, Donahoe took over as the new CEO of eBay. This was a time when the company was facing issues with growth and consumer way was changing. What used to be a thrilling experience for buyers was now an inconvenient waste of time and money. Consumers who were impetuous to bid against each other for products online were now satisfied with buying new products at fixed prices.Therefore, ebays turnaround strategy was to bring the consumers the best experience to find what they want exactly how and when they want it. Although tralatitious eBay sellers complained about the difficulty for them to do business profitably with the new strategy, Donahoe believed buyers wanted fixed prices, quick service, and freehanded shipping. I agree with Donahoes turnaround strategy because eBay had to focus on the market demands to see growth.So mething had to be done in a market where consumers wanted fixed prices and free shipping that they were receiving from companies deal Amazon. om. trade segmentation is dividing a market into smaller segments of buyers with distinct needs, characteristics, or behaviors that might require separate merchandise and develops profiles of the resulting market segments. Creating applications for smart phones and tablets was a good way to separate a specific department to its customers. For example, the eBay demeanor app allowed users to browse through products from the fashion department. Buyers were able to take time out of their day and make more than purchases with mix and match features.Using the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) method, companies like eBay classify all its SBUs according to the growth-share matrix. market growth rate provides a measure of market attractiveness and relative market share measures a companys strength in the market. The four types of SBUs are stars, exc hange cows, question marks, and dogs. Stars are high-growth, high-share businesses like eBay. When their growth slows down it turns into cash cows, which need less investment to hold their market share.Pepsi is a cash cow in the sense that its not growing but it is making banging profit in the meantime. Question marks are low-share business units in high-growth markets. A question mark could be a small garage that does car repairs because it has a small market share but a large demand for car repairs. Dogs are low-growth, low-share businesses and products that may generate enough cash to maintain themselves. An example of this would be a small town theatre business.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Memory †The mysterious phenomenon

Memory, a phenomenon which has been bewildering scientists and philosophers is san entity that needs to be analyze very cargonfully for finding out the truth behind it. Going deep in to the subject, shop comes under a prominent branch of neuroscience called the cognitive neuroscience. The basic factors that lead to the phenomenon of retention are response of culture, processing, storage and recollection. There are various factors that affect each of these processes. Based on this retentivity is in the main classified in to three heads.They are 1) long-term retrospect 2) short-term memory and 3) sensory memory Long-term memory Long term memory refers to those memories that are stored in the read/write head for a good prolonged period of age with out any loss. Here when an idea is stored in long-term memory, the education is stored in a semantically encoded format. As a moderate of this it is easier for us to remember a telephony number by legality of repeating the same but it is difficult to memorize a stochastic ten digit number.For the later case the encoding format is acoustic and hence the information is stored in short-term memory. Baddeley, the great researcher on human memory has nominate out that when given a test to recollect words uttered was given to a group of respondents the result was that people failed to phone words with same meanings like small, tiny, minute etc.. Short-term memory This is a much more mercurial memory that stores information just for a period of several seconds to few minutes with out memorizing it by heart. George A. Miller, held various demonstrations and the conclusion was that the storage capacity of short -term memory was just 7 2 entities (he presented a paper entitled The magical number 72). In the present day the intercommunicate cap index of short-term memory is still less. nevertheless hen the same group of words or letters, for an example is presented in different order, greater are the chances f or recollecting it. For example it is difficult to recollect the string FBIUNOASDFUS But when the same string is presented as below, greater chances re there for anyone to recollect it FBI UNO ASDF US.In the first combining of letters the information was lying stray with no order to memorise, whereas in the second one, they have an fortune to memorise it as bits which could be identified to about(prenominal)thing that they know. Short-term memory relies on the phonemes and the acoustic symbols for retaining information. Visual codes are rarely converted to short-term memory. Conrad a renowned researcher on human memory build out that the subjects of his experiments had difficulty in identifying and recollecting acoustically confusing phonemes and words like he, ghee, bee, see, etc..Sensory memory This change of memory refers to the memory that is retained in the telephone telephone receivers mind for about 200 to 500 milliseconds, once the information is acquired. Hence this is highly volatile and short-life memory. Sensory Memory smoke be identified as the ability to identify the specific features of an item, let it be a sound or an object by virtue of an observation of the same for a fraction of a second. George Sperling is the pioneer to conduct experiments on Sensory Memory. Respondents were provided with a set of 12 letters, which were made into 3 rows of four each.After completing a small introduction, the candidates were wherefore made to hear either a high, medium or low pitch tone, providing them info regarding which of the rows to report. On the base of this experiments, Sperling demonstrated that the range of sensory memory was about 12 items, but also found that it degenerated at a much more faster pace (it only had the life span of a few milliseconds and hence highly momentary). The main negative part of this kind of memory is that any tell of rehearsals do no not enhance the longevity.What is memory? Present day neuroscience and scienti sts are with the stream of cerebration that memory is a group of skittish connections which are encoded so as to retrieve for future references. This signifier of memory encoding may expire in different parts of the brain. Thus, a network of uneasy communication is likely to link various parts of the brain. The skill of the memory depends up on the strength of the neural connections. Recollection or calling back of any bit of memory can happen whenever a positive stimulus that trigger the particular part of the networked neural connections.As a result of this, when a part of the brain gets damaged, the neural network present there and obviously the memories associated with the particular neural connections is lost for ever. Why do we forget things? Forgetting can better be explained as an inability to defy memories secure. This is a condition when ideas and images perceived are either lost in full or part. The reasons for forgetting are many. The prominent factors that lead to forgetting include. 1. Poor encoding (this is why we forget dreams that we see while asleep. Encoding refers to converting the sounds, visuals, taste, notion tc.To corresponding chemical / neurological codes) 2. Unavailability of a retrieval mechanism (if there is no graceful stimuli to trigger the memory, the information remains dormant) 3. Time factor when a recent incident happens, the older data are sometimes wiped off from memory (We tend to forget exact dates of our vehicle insurance, when you have some 5 cars and 4 cruisers ) 4. Continuous similar experiences (You may have memories of the first instance when you visited London, but if you locomote London Every year, you many not remember when you landed for the fifth time )The Chemistry of memory The human brain is a highly complicated organ with more than 20 billion pump cells (neurons), about 150 trillion pith connecters or synapses an average of 7500 synapses per neuron within the brain, anyway, some neurons may have as many as 900,000 as well. Due to repair and safety from glial cells that protects the neurons, some nerve cells will be alive till the organism cease to live, however, it is calculated that about 85,000 neurons put one across out everyday in the brain. The most prominent doubt regarding memory is the place / location where it is creation stored.It was in 1960s that the theory of Long-Term Potentiation (L. T. P) and it counter theory called opposite Long Term belief came in to existence as molecularmemory postulates. Long-term potentiation refers to the reinforcement of neuron relations through elevating synaptic ion movements. In all connections of neurons there exists a synapse through which chemical neurotransmitters moves unhindered from the axonates and axons of the transmitting cell to the dendrites of the corresponding receiver cell.Neuro-transmitters like acetylcholine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, serotonin, norepinephrine function in free stop of complex electrical signals between nerve cells, muscle cells and sensory cells. Where as in the mean time, inside the cell, the protein pumps located in the cell tissue layer and channels frequently retains a constantresting effectiveness of 70 m V by virtue of locomote sodium cations on the outer part of the cell against a specific gradient.Presence of neurotransmitter into a receiver neuron located in the membrane part of a post-synaptic dendrite triggers and starts de-polarization of the specific membrane by the bring of calcium and sodium ions, this again results in the building of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels to unlock, permitting rapid flow of calcium and sodium ions, this is then followed by the inflow of thousand ions . as a result of this ion flow, depolarization happens once again to + 40 m V.As a result of this continuous process, action potential rapidly happens in the cell membrane to the axon , axonates and the pre-synaptic cleft, thus repeating this each and every time the signal reaches a neuron. Once the action potential has completed, the voltage gated channels close by themselves, and the potassium and sodium pumps makes the cell membrane to return to their original potential. All these happens in milliseconds, thus permitting multiple self-contradictory signals in swift momentum..Memory Disorders The branch of Human psychology and neurology is the basis for the diagnosis and give-and-take of many of the known memory disorders. In general the loss or degeneration of memory is termed as amnesia. Amnesia is of different categories. Analysing it can reveal the various forms of it and helps in the proper treatment as well. galore(postnominal) neuron related conditions like Alzheimers disease may also result in full or partial memory loss.Hyperthymesia, also called hyperthymesic syndrome, is a serious memory disorder which has adverse effect on retention of personal memory. Some sort of memory loss can be symptom of hypothyroidism a severe medical condition. Increasing oxygen supply to the brain, is considered as one among the foremost techniques to improve memory. This can be achieved by doing exercises like swimming, bicycle riding, gymnastics etc.. Tips to improve memoryMany factors to improve memory was furnished by the report published by The International Longevity Center in the year 2001 (pages 14-16) The study recommends to stick to the following to improve memory stay intellectually active through learning, discipline or reading, keep physically active so as to make blood circulation in the brain more active, socialize, reduce stress to the maximum possible extend, observe regular sleep timings, avoid depression or emotional strain and good nutrition.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Your Inner Fish

Your knowledgeable tip A Review of Chapter 4 In Your Inner Fish, a book about the study of development in mammals, chapter four is dedicated to the study of dentitioninging. Neil Shubin is explicit in his insistence that teeth be passing pregnant when examine evolution of the mankind body. He uses three main points to explain this to the reader. First, through the take to the woods of teeth. Then by revealing the anatomy of teeth. And finally by discussing tooth-to-tooth occlusion. teeth are used to insure larger objects so that they may fit into a smaller mouth.Shubin writes Mouths are still so big, and teeth enable creatures to eat things that are big than their mouths (Shubin 60). Without teeth creatures would founder a smaller variety of options when it came to fare choices. Bigger fish could only eat smaller fish and so on. As explained by Shubin teeth can be the great equalizer smaller fish can munch on bigger fish if they have good teeth (Shubin 60). So we d erive from this that teeth can play an important role in the food chain and thus in evolution. However, teeth play a more important part than this.By studying the anatomy of teeth many secrets can be revealed about old-fashioned reptiles and mammals. For instance, Shubin relates that The bumps, pits and ridges on teeth often reflect the diet (Shubin 60). By knowing the diet of an ancient creature, it is bonnie to see how a paleontologist and evolutionist can follow the emergence of the omnivore over the carnivore and herbivore. And the hardness of teeth father it the best-preserved animal we find in the fogey record for many time periods (Shubin 61).This clue to these ancient animals diets can give us a good window on how different shipway of feeding came about (Shubin 61). So, the shape of the teeth and the general mineral make-up both contribute to the expediency of teeth to the scientist. Still it remains that the tooth-to tooth occlusion is an imperative discovery when s haping the history of the human body. Reptiles do not have an upper and lower jaw that meet precisely. They rip and tear their food. On the another(prenominal) hand, mammals have an upper and lower jaw that meet in a precise position (Shubin 60-61).Shubin discusses that in lower flap forms, thus earlier years, fossil records show only reptilian-like mouths that do not have occlusion. As the paleontologist moves up into higher fluctuate formations, he finds more mammalian like tooth formations and smaller jaws. Go higher in the rocks and we see something utterly different the appearance of mammalness. The bones of the jaw excite smaller and move to the ear. We can see the first evidence of upper and lower teeth plan of attack together in precise ways (Shubin 62).From Shubins portrayal of the evolution of the mouth and teeth and teeths usefulness, it stands to reason that teeth are an important part of the study of ancient mammals and the evolution of the human body. Your Inner FishChapter 4 A Review In his book, Your Inner Fish, Neil Shubin mentions the fact that although the study of teeth are highly important to the study of ancient mammalian history, it is often overlooked or only briefly discussed in anatomy. However, Shubin successfully shows how extremely serious evolutionists and paleontologists take the study of tooth fossils.In the beginning of chapter 4 Teeth Everywhere, he states that the tooth gets short shrift in anatomy class we spend all of five minutes on it (Shubin 60). But because he fills the chapter with relative stories of paleontologists and himself inquisitioning solely for tooth fossils, he reveals that teeth are vital in the study of ancient mammals. Entire expeditions for tooth hunting are explored. Shubin even states that teeth have a picky significance for me, because it is in searching for them that I first learned how to find fossils and how to run a fossil expedition (Shubin 60).Thus, implying he had gone on an expeditio n with the sole purpose of hunting for ancient teeth.. From his references to paleontologists search for teeth it seems that teeth are a prominent study in evolution, even if touched on only briefly in anatomy classes. Shubin narrates a story of his first leading expedition where a tiny ancient mammal was discover in rock and the most significant finding was the divine revelation of tooth occlusion. He even reports that he was being treated like a conquering hero (Shubin 70) screening on campus following the return from the expedition.This is a definite sign that the importance of tooth and tooth occlusion are extremely recognized in the world of evolutionary studies. Time, money, and energy are offered to tooth expeditions, and findings are celebrated amongst paleontologists and evolutionists alike. Therefore, it can be concluded from Shubins examples that teeth are an important study among scientists who study the history of the human body. Your Inner Fish A study of Chapter 4 In his book Your Inner Fish, Shubin dedicates an entire chapter to the importance of studying the evolution of teeth when figuring the evolution of the human body.In order to study ancient teeth and jaws, however, fossil hunting for tooth fossils is imperative. In chapter 4, Shubin reveals just how difficult this expedition for teeth can be. Discovering bones in rock took experience. The work demanded the naked substance notice the signs of bone in rock. This is a difficult feat. According to Shubin, Id set off looking for fossils, systematically inspecting every rock I saw for a scrap of bone at the surface. At the end of the day. I had nothing, my empty bag a sign of how much I had to learn. (Shubin 63) But even by and by days walking and looking with an smart fossil finder who gave advice, it took time for Shubin to see the bones in rock. For days he asked questions and looked at the corresponding rocks as the expert who found many and still came back emptyhanded each evening. Then finally, one day he discovered his first piece of bone, and it was only this discovery that made him actually understand what he was looking for. The difference was this time I finally saw it, saw the distinction between rock and bone (Shubin 64-65).After this, it was much easier for Shubin to discover fossilized bones, but still the search is tedious and difficult. Even after a haul of some promising rock during his first self-led expedition, Shubin was not hopeful. To his great surprise, he was hailed as a hero once the fossils were delicately revealed in the rock formation, and it was discovered that he had found a skeleton of a tiny ancient reptile, tritheledont. From the teeth and jaws on this fossil it could be derived that this was a uncovering for the reptile as there was tooth-on-tooth occlusion.But once again, Shubin learned a greater lesson from this discovery that happened not in the field but in the lab where the rock had been carefully manipulated to reveal the fo ssil within. I learned that some of the biggest discoveries happen in the hands of fossil preparators, not in the field (Shubin 70). Fossil preparators are important and perform a very tedious job. In fact, this is one of the reasons fossil hunting is so difficult. Difficult to find, and difficult to prepare for study and viewing. The key point is that the early mammals were small. Very small. If the tooth was covered by a crumb of rock or even by a few grains of sand, you tycoon never see it (Shubin 66). Thus, it is easy to see how fossil, especially tooth fossil, hunting is extremely difficult. It takes patience and experience and an eye for tiny details. As Shubin reveals, it takes a team of hunters and preparators to discover the most important findings. Without both, evolution would be absent an imperative study, the study of teeth and jaws.

Friday, May 17, 2019

History of Global Warming Essay

The succession of exceptional days with record high temperatures, which characterized the 1980s, helped to generate widespread popular interest in planetary warming and its many ramifications. The decade included six of the warmest years in the past pennyury, and the trend continued into the 1990s, with 1991 the second warmest year on record. All of this fuelled speculation in particular among the media that the orbs temperature had begun an inexorable rise and the idea was further reinforced by the results of scientific studies which advised that world(prenominal) mean temperatures had risen by about 0. C since the beginning of the pennyimeury.Periods of rising temperature are not foreigner in the earths past. The roughly significant of these was the so-c alled Climatic Optimum, which occurred some 5,000-7,000 years agone and was associated with a level of warming that has not been matched since. If the current international warming continues, however, the record tempera tures of the earlier dot go out easily be surpassed. Temperatures reached during a later warm spell in the early core Ages may well have been equaled already.More recently, the 1930s provided some of the highest temperatures since records began, although that decade has been relegated to second place by events in the 1980s. Such warm spells have been accepted as part of the natural variability of the earth/ standard pressure frame in the past, that the current warming is viewed in a different light. It appears to be the first global warming to be created by human activity. The basic cause is seen as the swee hug druger of the nursery effect, brought on by rising levels of anthropogenically-produced nursery gases.It is now generally accepted that the meannesss of greenhouse gases in the aura have been increasing since the latter part of the nineteenth century. The increased use of fogy fuels has released prominent amounts of carbonic acid gas, and the destruction of natural vegetation has prevented the environment from restoring the balance. Levels of other greenhouse gases, including CH4, N2 O and CFCs have also been rising. Since all of these gases have the ability to retain terrestrial radiation in the asynchronous transfer mode, the net result should be a gradual increase in global temperatures.The link between recent warming and the enhancement of the greenhouse effect appears obvious. Most of the media, and many of those involved in the investigation and analysis of global modality win over, seem to have accepted the relationship as a fait accompli. There are only a hardly a(prenominal) dissenting voices, expressing misgivings about the nature of the evidence and the rapidity with which it has been embraced. A survey of environmental scientists involved in the study of the earths ever-changing climate, conducted in the spring of 1989, revealed that many still had doubts about the design of the warming.More than 60 per cent of those question ed indicated that they were not completely confident that the current warming was beyond the swear of normal natural variations in global temperatures (Slade 1990). The greenhouse effect is brought about by the ability of the airwave to be selective in its response to different types of radiation. The cash dispenser readily transmits solar radiation which is chiefly short-wave energy from the ultraviolet end of the energy spectrum allowing it to pass by dint of unaltered to heat the earths surface.The energy absorbed by the earth is reradiated into the atmosphere, that this terrestrial radiation is long-wave infrared emission, and instead of being hereditary it is absorbed, create the temperature of the atmosphere to rise. Some of the energy absorbed in the atmosphere is returned to the earths surface, causing its temperature to rise also. This is considered similar to the way in which a greenhouse whole kit allowing sunlight in, but confine the resulting heat inside hence the use of the name greenhouse effect.In reality it is the grump in the greenhouse which allows the temperature to be maintained, by preventing the mixing of the warm straining inside with the cold air outside. There is no such barrier to mixing in the real atmosphere, and some scientists have suggested that the processes are capablely different to preclude the use of the term greenhouse effect. Anthes et al. (1980) for example, prefer to use atmospherical effect. However, the use of the term greenhouse effect to describe the ability of the atmosphere to absorb infrared energy is so well established that any change would cause needless confusion.The demand for change is not strong, and greenhouse effect will continue to be used widely for descriptive purposes, although the simile is not perfect. Without the greenhouse effect, global temperatures would be much lower than they are perhaps averaging only ? 17C compared to the existing average of +15C. This, then, is a very impor tant characteristic of the atmosphere, yet it is make possible by a group of gases which together make up less than 1 per cent of the total volume of the atmosphere. There are about twenty of these greenhouse gases.Carbon dioxide is the most abundant, but methane, nitrous oxide, the chlorofluoro vitamin Cs and tropospheric ozone are potentially significant, although the cushion of the ozone is limited by its variability and short life span. piddle vapour also exhibits greenhouse properties, but it has received less tending in the greenhouse turn over than the other gases since the very efficient natural recycling of water through the hydrologic steering wheel ensures that its atmospheric concentration is little affected by human activities.Any change in the volume of the greenhouse gases will disrupt the energy flow in the earth/atmosphere corpse, and this will be reflected in changing world temperatures. This is nothing new. Although the media sometimes seem to suggest that the greenhouse effect is a modern phenomenon, it is not. It has been a characteristic of the atmosphere for millions of years, sometimes much intense than it is now, sometimes less. Three of the principal greenhouse gasesCO2, methane (CH4) and the CFCs tone down carbon, one of the most common elements in the environment, and one which plays a major affair in the greenhouse effect.It is present in all primitive substances, and is a constituent of a great variety of compounds, ranging from comparatively simple gases to very complex derivatives of petroleum hydrocarbons. The carbon in the environment is mobile, readily changing its connexion with other elements in response to biological, chemical and physical processes. This mobility is controlled through a natural biogeochemical cycle which works to maintain a balance between the release of carbon compounds from their sources and their absorption in sinks.The natural carbon cycle is normally considered to be self-regulating, but with a time scale of the hostel of thousands of years. Over shorter periods, the cycle appears to be unbalanced, but that may be a reflection of an incomplete understanding of the processes involved or perhaps an indication of the presence of sinks or roots still to be discovered (Moore and Bolin 1986). The carbon in the system moves between several major reservoirs.The atmosphere, for example, use ups more than 750 meg tones of carbon at any given time, small-arm 2,000 billion tones are stored on land, and close to 40,000 billion tones are contained in the seas (Gribbin 1978). Living terrestrial organic matter is estimated to contain between 450 and 600 billion tones, somewhat less than that stored in the atmosphere (Moore and Bolin 1986). World fossil fuel reserves also constitute an important carbon reservoir of some 5,000 billion tones (McCarthy et al. 1986).They contain carbon which has not been active in the cycle for millions of years, but is now being reintroduced as a result of the ripening demand for energy in modern society being met by the tap and burn of fossil fuels. It is being reactivated in the form of CO2, which is being released into the atmospheric reservoir in quantities sufficient to disrupt the natural flow of carbon in the environment. The greatest natural flow (or flux) is between the atmosphere and terrestrial biota and between the atmosphere and the oceans.Although these fluxes vary from time to time, they have no long-term impact on the greenhouse effect because they are an integral part of the earth/atmosphere system. In contrast, inputs to the atmosphere from fossil fuel consumption, although smaller than the natural flows, involve carbon which has not participated in the system for millions of years. When it is reintroduced, the system cannot cope immediately, and becomes unbalanced. The natural sinks are unable to absorb the new CO2 as rapidly as it is being produced. The excess carcass in the atmosphere, to intensify t he greenhouse effect, and thus contribute to global warming.The burn of fossil fuels adds more than 5 billion tones of CO2 to the atmosphere every year, with more than 90 per cent originating in North and Central America, Asia, Europe and the republics of the former USSR. Fossil fuel use remains the primeval source of anthropogenic CO2 but augmenting that is the destruction of natural vegetation which causes the level of atmospheric CO2 to increase by reducing the amount recycled during photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a process, shared by all green coiffures, by which solar energy is converted into chemical energy. It involves gaseous exchange.During the process, CO2 taken in through the plant leaves is broken down into carbon and oxygen. The carbon is retained by the plant while the oxygen is released into the atmosphere. The role of vegetation in controlling CO2 through photosynthesis is clearly indicated by variations in the levels of the gas during the ontogenesis season. Measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii show patterns in which CO2 concentrations are lower during the northerly summer and higher during the northern winter. These variations reflect the effects of photosynthesis in the northern hemisphere, which contains the bulk of the worlds vegetation (Bolin 1986).Plants absorb CO2 during their summer growing phase, but not during their winter dormant period, and the divergency is sufficient to cause semi-annual fluctuations in global CO2 levels. The clearing of vegetation raises CO2 levels in headly through reduced photosynthesis, but CO2 is also added directly to the atmosphere by burning, by the decay of biomass and by the increased oxidation of carbon from the newly exposed soil. Such processes are estimated to be responsible for 5-20 per cent of current anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Waterstone 1993).This is usually considered a modern phenomenon, particularly prevalent in the tropic rainforests of South America and South-East Asia (Gribbin 1978), but Wilson (1978) has suggested that the pioneer agricultural settlement of North America, Australasia and South Africa in the second one-half of the nineteenth century made an important contribution to rising CO2 levels. This is back up to some extent by the observation that between 1850 and 1950 some 120 billion tones of carbon were released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and the destruction of other vegetation by fire (Stuiver 1978).The burning of fossil fuels produced only half that much CO2 over the same time period. Current estimates indicate that the atmospheric CO2 increase resulting from reduced photosynthesis and the clearing of vegetation is equivalent to about 1 billion tones per year (Moore and Bolin 1986), down slightly from the earlier value. However, the annual contribution from the burning of fossil fuels is almost ten times what it was in the years between 1850 and 1950. Although the total annual input of CO2 to the atmosphere is of the order of 6 billion tonnes, the atmospheric CO2 level increases by only about 2. billion tonnes per year.The difference is distributed to the oceans, to terrestrial biota and to other sinks as yet unknown (Moore and Bolin 1986). Although the oceans are commonly considered to absorb 2. 5 billion tonnes of CO2 per year, recent studies suggest that the actual total may be only half that amount (Taylor 1992). The destination of the remainder has important implications for the study of the greenhouse effect, and continues to be investigated.The oceans absorb the CO2 in a variety of wayssome as a result of photosynthesis in phytoplankton, some through nutritional processes which allow marine organisms to grow calcium carbonate shells or skeletons, and some by direct diffusion at the air/ocean interface (McCarthey et al. 1986). The mixing of the ocean amniotic fluid causes the redistribution of the absorbed CO2. In polar latitudes, for example, the added carbon sinks along with th e cold surface waters in that region, whereas in warmer latitudes carbon-rich waters well up towards the surface allowing the CO2 to escape again.The turnover of the deep ocean waters is relatively slow, however, and carbon carried there in the sinking water or in the skeletons of dead marine organisms remains in storage for hundreds of years. More rapid mixing takes place through surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream, but in general the sea responds only slowly to changes in atmospheric CO2 levels. This may explain the apparent inability of the oceans to absorb more than 40-50 per cent of the CO2 added to the atmosphere by human activities, although it has the capacity to absorb all of the additional carbon (Moore and Bolin 1986).The oceans constitute the largest active reservoir of carbon in the earth/atmosphere system, and their ability to absorb CO2 is not in doubt. However, the detail mechanisms involved are now recognized as extremely complex, requiring more research into the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean and biosphere if they are to be better understood (Crane and Liss 1985). Palaeoenvironmental evidence suggests that the greenhouse effect fluctuated quite considerably in the past.In the Quaternary era, for example, it was less intense during glacial periods than during the interglacials (Bach 1976 Pisias and Imbrie 1986). Present concern is with its increasing intensity and the associated global warming. The rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 is usually identified as the main culprit, although it is not the most powerful of the greenhouse gases. It is the most abundant, however, and its concentration is increasing rapidly. As a result, it is considered likely to give a good indication of the trend of the climatic impact of the greenhouse effect, if not its exact magnitude.Svante Arrhenius, a Swedish chemist, is usually credited with being the first to recognize that an increase in CO2 would lead to global warming (Bolin 1986 Bach 1976 Crane and Liss 1985). Other scientists, including John Tyndall in Britain and T. C. Chamberlin in America (Jones and Henderson-Sellers 1990), also investigated the link, but Arrhenius provided the first quantitative predictions of the rise in temperature (Idso 1981 Crane and Liss 1985). He published his findings at the beginning of this century, at a time when the environmental implications of the Industrial Revolution were just beginning to be hold deard.Little attention was paid to the potential impact of increased levels of CO2 on the earths radiation climate for some time after that, however, and the estimates of CO2 -induced temperature increases calculated by Arrhenius in 1903 were not bettered until the early sixties (Bolin 1986). Occasional papers on the topic appeared, but interest only began to increase significantly in the early 1970s, as part of a growing appreciation of the potentially dire consequences of human deterrent in the environment. Increased CO2 production and rising atmospheric turbidity were recognized as both important elements capable of causing changes in climate.The former had the potential to cause greater warming, whereas the latter was considered more likely to cause cooling (Schneider, 1987). For a time it seemed that the cooling would dominate (Ponte 1976), but results from a growing number of investigations into greenhouse warming, published in the early 1980s, changed that (e. g. Idso 1981 Schneider 1987 Mitchell 1983). They revealed that scientists had generally underestimated the speed with which the greenhouse effect was intensifying, and had failed to appreciate the impact of the subsequent global warming on the environment or on human activities.