Thursday, January 30, 2020

The Right of Children and Young Person Essay Example for Free

The Right of Children and Young Person Essay This was aimed at understanding children better and for the Filipino teacher to be more aware of the children’s rights. The code contained the following provision: To understand and help children better, it is important for every Filipino teacher to be cognizant of such rights. The provisions of the Code regarding such rights are as follows: All children shall be entitled o the rights herein set forth without distinction as to legitimacy, sex, social status, religion, political antecedents, and other factors. 1. Every child is endowed with dignity and worth of a human being from the moment of his conception, as generally accepted in medical parlance, and has therefore, the right to be born well. 2. Every child has the right to a wholesome family life that will provide him with love, care and understanding, guidance and counseling, moral and material security. . Every child has the right to a well-rounded development of his personality to the end that he may become a happy, useful, and active member of society. 4. Every child has the right to a balance diet, adequate clothing, sufficient shelter, proper medical attention, and all the basic physical requirements of a healthy and vigorous life. 5. Every child has the right to be brought up in an atmosphere of morality and rectitude for the enrichment and the strengthening of his character. 6. Every child has the right to an education commensurate with his ability and to the development of his skills for the improvement of his capacity for service to himself and his fellowmen. 7. Every child has the right to full opportunities for safe and wholesome recreation and activities, individual as well as social, for the wholesome use of his leisure hours. 8. Every child has the right to protection against exploitation , improper influences, hazards, and the other conditions or circumstances prejudicial to his physical, mental, emotional, social , and moral development.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Infinity Mirror :: The Infinity Mirror

The Infinity Mirror    "Tularecito" is a myth about truth. Tularicito, just a character of that myth, is the focus for this glossed over fable. Steinbeck draws on this form of genre to present the idea that we are all a part of what happens to others, based upon our nature.    The image presented of Tularecito is that of a demon, an idiot savant, a boy with a gift from God, and that gift's cost. He is a freak, a dangerous misfit, an innocent who does not need the constraints of reality. Tularecito is a test. The test is one of moral caliber. It is a test of the souls of the characters who overshadaow Tularecito.    Pancho is a man that is both holy and sinful. His purfunctory act of church going becomes true belief as alcohol demons induce him to halucinate a deformed boy into an outcast from hell. He looks into his mirror and sees himself, becomes shaken, reforms.    From Pancho's employer, Franklin Gomez, we get a cold hard look into society. We see a mother, knowing her son is to be hated and feared, and perhaps possibly killed, cannot face killing her son with her bare hands. She leaves the killing to exposure to the elements, enying herself a look into Tularecito.    Franklin adopts Pancho's demon, and Tularecito transforms into a disadvantaged who has been gifted with talent. Tularecito becomes a man at the age of six, "The boy grew rapidly, but after the fifth year his brain did not grow any more," To Franklin, Tularecito is grace, and graceless. He is talented in all things of any physical strength, and well proficient in the creation of beauty, and an artist in the care for life of nature. The touch of Tularecito brings beauty, and life, and love to the world, until he becomes enraged, (should anyone endanger what came from the touch of his hand). Franklin looked into   Tularecito's mirror and saw what Tularecito was.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Globalization: Good or Bad Essay

A tremendously contentious issue, globalization has been the center if much discusses and has raised a lot of questions. Some have viewed its procedure as helpful, while many others disagree that it produces adverse results and cost. Though, before the questions and apprehensions of globalization, it is essential to decide or rather describe globalization and all which is concerned. Although Ð ° fairly new term, dating to 1980s, globalization has been Ð ° historical process evident for over the last 100 years. Globalization specially encompasses many aspects for example trade, capital movement, stretch of information, movement of people. (Yager 2004) In the broader definition, globalization promotes effectiveness by utilizing each market and nation’s specialization; nonetheless, allowing people and economies to focus on what they do best. Globalization gives opportunity to each nation to access each others markets as well as to capital flow, technology, imports, exports, politics, and culture. However, as some countries continually reap the benefits and flourish others are falling short. (Guillen 2001) With any global process there are definitely risks and consequences to follow. It is certain that globalization led to Ð ° great economical growth but it is obvious that prosperity is not equal. Already advanced countries are the ones who have benefited most by globalization; nevertheless, this is not to say slowly developing countries have not prospered as well. However, the poorest regions such as in Africa and the former Soviet have not been able to keep up with the worldwide phenomenon. Low income countries have not integrated with the global economy because of policies and outside factors beyond their control. These factors are not fault of globalization; however, there has not been much effort to strengthen these countries financial systems. Globalization is lacking processes in which to increase trade and aid to the poorest countries which would help with integration of all countries-rich and poor. Furthermore, there are not only gaps between the rich and poor countries, but among the rich and poor within the countries which are benefiting from globalization. (Gladwin 2002) Comparative advantage and globalization The theory of absolute advantage was originally proposed in 1776 by Adam Smith. Smith’s theory was the first to explain the benefit of free trade. Smith felt that the hand of the market mechanism, rather than government policy, should determine Ð ° countries imports and exports. Free trade is achieved when Ð ° government does not influence trade through quotas or duties. Theory of absolute advantage, â€Å"†¦suggests that Ð ° country should specialize in producing goods in areas where it has an absolute advantage and import goods in areas where other countries have absolute advantages†. (Sherman, Steingard & Fitzgibbons 2002) The theory of comparative advantage, building on Smith’s theory, David Ricardo advanced the intellectual theory for unrestricted free trade by suggesting that†¦Ã¢â‚¬  it makes sense for Ð ° country to specialize in producing those goods that it can produce most efficiently, while buying goods that it can produce relatively less efficiently from other countries even if that means buying goods from other countries that it could produce more efficiently itself†. In short, the theory of comparative advantage suggests that opening Ð ° country to free trade stimulates economic growth. (Guillen 2001) Heckscher-Ohlin theory is Ð ° refined version of the work of Ricardo. Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin, 20th century Swedish economists’ revealed one of the most influential ideas in international economics. (Brown, David, and Hunter 2004) The Heckscher-Ohlin hypothesis has been one of the most significant hypothetical ideas in global economics. The Heckscher-Ohlin theory suggests that the pattern of international trade is determined by endowments. The theory further reveals that, â€Å"†¦ countries will export those goods that make intensive use of locally abundant factors and will import goods that make intensive use of factors that are locally scarce†. (Stasavage 2005) Factors of Globalization The major drivers of globalization are the decline in barriers to the free flow of goods, services, and capital, technological change, communication, information processing, and transportation technologies. Examples of declining trade and investment barriers that will enable the free flow of goods and services can be seen in the reduction of tariffs and legal blocks which have prevented cross country business. (Gladwin 2002) These barriers were lessoned over the past decades facilitated by the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the move towards free market economies in China and Latin America. Reduction of these barriers has resulted in the current trend toward the globalization of production and the ability to see the world as Ð ° single market. (Yergin & Stanislaw 2000) Examples of technological change can be seen in the major advances seen in communication, information processing, and transportation technology, including the explosive emergence of the Internet and the World Wide We. Arguably the most important development is that of the microprocessor, which has fueled explosive growth increasing power and reducing costs there by exponentially increasing the amount of information processed by individual and organizations alike. (Guillen 2001) In the past three decades global communication has been enhanced by developments in satellite, optical fiber, wireless technologies, the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW). Transportation innovations such as the jet aircraft, super-freighters, and the introductions of containerization have simplified shipment from one mode of transportation to the next; thereby increasing the speed and reducing the cost of goods shipped enabling organizations to expand the geographical area to which goods can be shipped. (Osland Dhanda & Yuthas 2002) Pros Productivity To begin with, globalization is creating Ð ° competitive advantage to companies which outsource labor work to cheaper countries hence lowering their costs. In this scenario both countries would be better of since the cheaper country would foreign cash inflows and the outsourcing country would have cheaper costs. (Gladwin 2002) Ð  problem with this practice is creating loss of jobs in the outsourcing country, but that is like saying Ð ° supermarket is laying of specific workers to hire more efficient workers therefore creating joblessness for the laid off workers. The workers will eventually get work in Ð ° field where they have â€Å"comparative advantage† in which is having an advantage among others based on specialization (in the simple sense). (Jepsen 2004) The same applies to Ð ° country as Ð ° whole when unemployment is on the rise; this will probably create Ð ° downward pressure on the cost of employment in the country and therefore having companies going back to hiring locals for the job since they now cost less and would then have the comparative advantage. Ð  second reason why globalization should be supported is that worldwide welfare is increased when each country does what is has Ð ° comparative advantage in, and this should come naturally as each company in Ð ° country individually finds the country to produce in that makes the most economic sense. (Brown, David, and Hunter 2004) This increase in welfare is accomplished because by definition when using comparative advantage each country is working in its specialization therefore each country is producing relatively its highest capacity. One of the greatest evils for the business/economic world is inflation and globalization helps limit inflation and this is due to competition in Ð ° bigger scale (worldwide) rather than just country wide. (Osland Dhanda & Yuthas 2002) Another reason why welfare will increase because of globalization is the fact that countries which have jobs given to them from foreign countries will now have more means to buying products from other countries all over the world therefore increasing the standard of living in all countries involved. Globalization spawns interaction between many different cultures which creates an understanding of populations’ ideologies and values towards one another. (Gladwin 2002) This creates more political stability as misunderstandings are less likely to occur. This can also be Ð ° problem as some extremists might be close minded to interaction and introduction of foreigners into the country which creates Ð ° bit of Ð ° cultural clash and some problems might occur such as revolutions against new policies and, in an extreme situation, war. (Stasavage 2005) Ideas and innovation Although in general globalization is Ð ° positive effect it still has its pitfalls. As previously discussed workers in the outsourcing country loose Ð ° lot of their jobs and unemployment is Ð ° serious problem to every economy. It is been said that one quarter of workers who have lost their jobs to outsourcing would still be unemployed 3 years from the time they were laid-off. (Sherman, Steingard & Fitzgibbons 2002) The workers who have not lost their job will probably be facing survivor syndrome which is the fear of loosing their job after Ð ° huge lay off has made around them and they haven’t been laid-off which has effects on the human’s health(heart problems) and productivity if they think there is no hope and they start lagging of. Exploitation of developing countries by developed countries is one of the major problems of globalization and it exists in two forms. The first type is using the labor force of Ð ° country for an extremely low price, in some cases old woman and very young children were used in the production of various products such as shoes and clothing. (Gladwin 2002) This issue was brought into attention in the late nineties with companies like Nike exploiting young kids to work for close to nothing and in horrid conditions in countries such as Indonesia. The second form of exploitation is when developing countries are forced to sell their products (coffee in the case of Brazil) at Ð ° very low price due to market fluctuations and the desperate need for income. Ð  cut in the production of one product in one part of the world would be highly felt in Ð ° whole different part of the world and that effect is highly substantial in primary products like oil. (Gladwin 2002) Inflation, jobs and outsourcing There are many advantages which Ð ° company could get from outsourcing its distribution functions. Ð  study which has been conducted in 1993 reported that Ð ° company could reduce 9% of its operating costs by outsourcing. When Ð ° company is outsourced its distribution function to world-class provider, it would reduce the cost of this function as the provider would be more efficient and specialist in this function. Also, by outsourcing non-core activities like distribution, Ð ° company could focus on its core activities and increase revenues. . Managers realize that by outsourcing their routine, nonessential operations, they can better focus on the core competencies that truly differentiate them from competitor. (Gladwin 2002) For example, Ericsson one, of the leading companies in the telecommunication industry, wanted to reduce its costs in the supply chain by finding Ð ° solution to its warehouses in Philippines. (Guillen 2001) Ericsson is always trying to reduce costs in different areas of business, this is including, the supply chain so as to save money and focus on Research and development. Therefore, Ericsson turned to Exel. Ericsson has leased the warehousing operation to Exel on Ð ° two years contract. Exel has provided Ð ° flexible service to Ericsson which has resulted in cost saving and made Ericsson concentrate on its core businesses. Before Ericsson has to handle the warehouse operation in-house but it was not the core competencies of the business. (Osland Dhanda & Yuthas 2002) Another advantage of outsourcing is the reduction of the need to invest in non-core business assets such as warehousing and carriers. This will allow the firm to make the capital funds more available for core functions such as research and development in the telecommunication industry. For example, Northern Telecom manufacture enterprise which is operating in 130 countries has outsourced its distribution service to Ryder Dedicated Logistic. The main reason for Northern Telecom to outsource its distribution function, it did not want to invest in non-core activities. (Yergin & Stanislaw 2000) The development and increasing implementation of outsourcing has not been without its problem. The cost escalation and lack of quality of service are two of the more frequent complaints from firms towards the third party, although contractors argue that these problems often stem from firm’s failure to be precise about what they want by outsourcing their distribution service. Clear objectives need to be set by and to achieve this high level of communication and understanding between firm and service provider must be established. (Sherman, Steingard & Fitzgibbons 2002) Cons Jobs loss The risk outsourcing is the impact of outsourcing on those currently responsible for management of the function is fundamental. If the service is outsourced, the management of the provision of the service from within the organization is radically changed from management of Ð ° function to management of the business relationship with Ð ° contractor. The lack of control posed by movement of this function outside of the organization is often seen as the greatest risk of outsourcing. Consequently, it needs to be cautiously planned and managed. In reality, the effect of outsourcing can simply be seen as Ð ° shift in focus from managing Ð ° function to managing Ð ° contractual relationship. Careful planning together with Ð ° contract written to provide for control measures such as performance monitoring, and good contract administration will minimize or negate any lack of control. (Gladwin 2002) Outsourcing now usually includes benefit transfers. Examples are transfers of staff, sale of existing equipment, and/or Ð ° transfer of existing contracts used in the provision of the service. It is common for specialist outsourcing companies to seek Ð ° transfer of existing staff to do the work. An organization can facilitate this process by allowing communication between staff and bidders about options for staff. Many staff views the opportunity to work with an organization that specializes in their field as valuable; others will prefer redeployment or simply Ð ° redundancy. (Gladwin 2002) Sometimes the sale, lease or sublicense of Ð ° site is also involved. It is therefore important that Ð ° complete asset valuation is undertaken as part of the process of defining an organization’s current service and preferred requirements. The organization must know what equipment and other physical property it has, including consumables, what contracts are currently used in the provision of the service and relevant details of those contracts. It is common for specialist outsourcing companies to seek Ð ° transfer of existing staff to do the work. An organization can facilitate this process by allowing communication between staff and bidders about options for staff. All these need to be considering when the company decides to outsource its distribution activities to the external agents. (Jepsen 2004) As noted, there are many advantages for companies who choose outsourcing as Ð ° means of satisfying their logistics need, but just as there are advantages there are also disadvantages. Outsourcing is based upon fundamental principles and, if those are applied at the outset of Ð ° relationship, the parties will most likely have an effective, successful relationship. But if the parties enter into an agreement that is not based on those principles, the result will be an unsatisfactory relationship and, probably, an early termination of the contract. (Karliner 2000)

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Parliament Criminal Court - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1801 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Case study Did you like this example? Contemporary Issue The 2007 criminal case of R Vs Niehus, criticism of a District Court Judge Marie Shaw by State Upper House Member of Parliament Dennis Hood. Question Is Judicial Independence jeopardised by State Members of Parliament who publicly criticise the sentencing handed by Criminal Court Judges? Judicial Independence is crucial to the operation of a democratic society, leaving little debate that an independent judiciary is the â€Å"fragile bastion† in our democratic system of government. Thus judges, when presiding over cases, are entirely free from any intrusion or intimidation executed by external forces. The Westminster System, implemented from Britain, ensures the courts have the confidence of the community and all cases provide an outcome exclusively on merit, as Michael OConnell, Victims of Crime Commissioner (Appendix 3) states: â€Å"The Judiciary shall decide matters due to impartiality on the basis of facts.† However, questions have been raised whether judicial independence is jeopardised by external forces publicly criticising a judges verdict. One such example occurred when State Upper House Member of Parliament, Dennis Hood, publicly attacked District court Judge Marie Shaws final ruling in the 2007 criminal case of R Vs Niehus, prompting an order for her dismissal. David Swain, Retired Chief Magistrate (Appendix 2) reports, â€Å"Judicial Independence is a vital part of the Westminster System.† To guarantee absolute judicial independence and uphold the confidence of the community, the judiciary must have complete separation from both the Legislative and Executive arms of Government, and any other external political forces. Accomplishment of this is achieved in a number of ways; first, Judges are appointed by the Executive arm and dismissed by the Legislative arm, to avert the chance of one arm of Government grasping complete control over the judiciary and Section 72 of â€Å"The Australian Constitution Act† (1900) specifies the dismissal of a judge can only occur on two grounds; misbehaviour and incapacity. Secondly, a permanent tenure is provided, on the g rounds a judge must retire at the age of 70, with the exception of Family Court Justices, who have an obligation to retire at 65. This assures judges cannot be removed if their decision does not support the governments request, as Peter Hasket, Retired Magistrate (Appendix 4) states, â€Å"Even if a number of people dont want them, their position stays the same.† Thirdly, a fixed remuneration is guaranteed, preventing both salaries from being diminished throughout tenure and manipulation occurring. However, salaries can be increased by government on objective factors. Fourthly, judges are ensured judicial privilege, allowing them to have freedom of speech while presiding on the bench and delivering verdicts. Thus judges cannot be threatened by criminal prosecution or sued for vilification, a fact David Swain (Appendix 2) suggested â€Å"one can take comfort in.† Finally, individuals who are selected for judicial office must have suitable training and credentials in the law, and no discrimination is to occur on the basis of sex, colour, race, status, religion or political influence. The Honourable Justice John Basten- Judge of the Supreme Court New South Wales (2005:1) reports, â€Å"Principles of open justice play an important part of our courts.† Justice is governed in an open court, where the public has complete access, although exceptions occur, for example, courtrooms can only provide for a small number of spectators. Furthermore, for those who do not attend, sentencing remarks are available via the Internet, and significant cases are usually covered in the print and electronic media. This then ensures openness, as it is vital in promoting the publics confidence. However, information handed to the public via the media raises questions to the extent of its reliability. David Swain (Appendix 2) reports, â€Å"99% of all cases, which go through the courts dont get any media attention.† This indicates that the media has one priority, which is to attract public attention and have general appeal, in order to sell papers. As well as this, The Honourable Justice John Basten (2005:1) states, â€Å"reporters who cover trials often move from one court room to another during the course of a day, obtaining only an incomplete picture of what is happening in any particular case.† Along with media attention, public criticism is also created. â€Å"Sentencing reflects the views of the community, because in effect, they are prescribing parliaments will,† states Michael OConnell (Appendix 3). However, it is impossible to please all citizens, thus generating criticism of certain cases, usually through the media. A recent significant case, which generated much public criticism and uproar, was the 2007 criminal case of R Vs Niehus, ruled by District Court Judge Marie Shaw. Dennis Hood, publicly attacked her final ruling, and called for her removal due to the leniency of her suspended sentence. Dennis H ood (2007:1) questioned, â€Å"What possible reason can there be to allow Judge Shaw to continue to hear cases and hand down grossly inadequate sentences to hardened criminals?† Christopher Michael Niehus received a three-year suspended jail sentence, upon the condition that he entered a bond of $400 to uphold good behaviour for a two year period and perform 150 hours of community service, in respect of four counts of unlawful sexual intercourse. Marie Shaw (2007:3) states, â€Å"the matters which favour suspension to which your counsel has referred, are that you are a person of previous good character, you are someone who, both before these offences and subsequently, has engaged in age appropriate relationships. In my view, you are unlikely to offend again.† Marie Shaws position as District Court Judge, entitles her to consider all facts and circumstances and provide an outcome exclusively on merit, which she has confidently done. However, Dennis Hood completely disagreed with Marie Shaws suspended sentence, complaining to the media that, â€Å"abusing a young girl, a 14-year-old girl† resulted in â€Å"a sentence of 150 hours of community service.† Denis Hoods actions of publicly calling for Marie Shaw to be dismissed raised the question to the extent of criticism, which should be allowed without the risk of jeopardising Judicial Independence. David Swain (Appendix 2) states, â€Å"Every now and again one or two people, particularly politicians, turn to their favour, and politically ‘go too far, which can arguably be an attack on independence.† Beneficial criticism of the Judiciary is welcomed and appropriate as it allows public scrutiny and maintains the confidence of the community through integrity. As well as this freedom of speech in our democracy is a fundamental right. Nevertheless, as Michael OConnell (Appendix 3) states, â€Å"the criticism, as in any situation, should focus on the issue, not the ind ividual,† Denis Hoods public ‘out-burst, was directly aimed at Judge Marie Shaw, ultimately causing considerable distress and embarrassment, Marie Shaw (2007:1) states,† I was bitterly disappointed that he attacked my fitness for office on the basis of inaccurate statements.† Soon after Dennis Hoods public ‘outburst, leading judges raised alarms that Judicial Independence was under fire. Chief Justice John Doyle and Chief Judge Terry Worthington stated, â€Å"Mr Hoods push for her removal is contrary to constitutional principle and threatens to undermine the judiciarys independence, also that any attempt to remove a judge could lead to inappropriate pressure on judges to operate in a way acceptable to politicians and any threat to remove a judge from office because of criticism of a judges decision sets a dangerous precedent and who will be threatened next?† Despite maintaining the integrity of its independence, the judiciary understands it will never be immune from public criticism, as it is an essential component of our democratic system of government. David Swain (Appendix 2) states, â€Å"The judiciary is in the same position as any other public institution. It must expect, and should be prepared to deal with, criticism.† However, reforms need to be made in Marie Shaws case, where public criticism was undoubtedly incorrect and taken to a level, which may have jeopardised her independence. Any public criticism, of any arm of government, should always be of benefit to that arm of government. The criticism must purely be aimed at the issues involved and never a direct attack on an individual. In regards to certain views of ‘soft sentences, by politicians as such, the official method of parliamentary review should be employed, not via media outlets. As well as this Michael OConnell (Appendix 3) states, â€Å"(I) rely on victims views. In general, victims who contact me feel that the sentence imposed w as too lenient- in other words, they expected a harsher sentence.† I am confident that the question posed: ‘Is Judicial Independence jeopardised by State Members of Parliament who publicly criticise the sentencing handed by criminal court judges? can be answered in the negative. Dennis Hoods public ‘outburst, was certainly demoralising for Her Honour Judge Shaw, which moved Hood to apologise and retract his statements. Dennis Hood stated in his public apology, â€Å"I recognise that by making these assertions I have caused considerable distress and embarrassment to Judge Shaw.† Although the criticism was unjust, Michael OConnell (Appendix 3) reports, â€Å"it will not affect the general sentencing practices.† Our Attorney-General often comments that, â€Å"courts in common law countries have been independent of the Parliament since the 1600s.† Our current sentencing system works effectively in Australia.   There should be no need to mak e any reforms to the current system as any changes may in fact place the communitys trust in the overall system  at risk.   Our current judicial practices must be preserved to ensure that judges and the overall judicial system are preserved and the so called â€Å"Fragile Bastion† is at all times protected. Judges are accountable for their overall actions and the decisions that they make.   The issue is that parliamentarians need to be careful that when criticising judges it is done lawfully.   As it was clearly stated by David Swain (Appendix 2), The sentencing process is conducted in a manner that does reflect the values, morals and concerns of the community. We need to trust in our current structures of being able to maintain Judicial Independence and preserve the communitys confidence in the legal system. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Parliament Criminal Court" essay for you Create order Bibliography 22/11/2007, ‘Remove judge, urges Upper House MP, ABC News, viewed 24/04/2008 Bailey, Geoff, ‘Legal Studies Key Ideas Stage 2, Adelaide, 2006 Bash, Barbara, ‘Legal Studies Essentials SACE 2, Adelaide Tuition Centre 2008 Basten, John 2005, ‘Court and Media Relationships, viewed 26th April 2008, Dowdell, Andrew, Henderson, Nick, 23/11/2007, ‘Attorney-General, rejected calls to sack District Court Judge, ABC News, viewed 23/04/2008,22606,22803291-5006301,00.html Doyle, John, 22/08/2003, ‘Judicial Independence and the Separation of Powers, viewed 15/05/2008, Hasket, Peter, 13/05/2008, Notes from interview Hood, Denis, 05/05/2008, Notes from interview ‘Judicial Sentencing, 22nd November 2007, Extract from the Legislative Council Hansard, viewed 10th May 2008 OConnell, Michael, 08/05/2008, Notes from interview Shaw, Marie, ‘R v Christopher Michael Niehus Sentencing Remarks, District Court, Adelaide, 2007 Swain, David, 06/05/2008, Notes from interview Swain, David, ‘Are Judges Truly Independent?, viewed 6th May 2008 Swain, David, ‘Do Sentencing Laws Reflect Community Attitudes and Values, viewed 6th May 2008