Monday, September 30, 2019

Drug Testing for Welfare Recipients? Essay

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is a federally funded block grant which provides needy families assistance in finding and obtaining work opportunities. The funds are given to states to distribute. States are allowed some flexibility in how they chose to distribute these funds. There has been a recent movement among states to implement drug testing for applicants and recipients to receive this assistance. Many people see this as a violation of their 4th amendment rights. The ideology behind drug testing is to weed out misuse of funds by recipients, thus alleviating budgetary concerns in hard economic times. Are there other means of easing budgetary issues without potentially violating the 4th amendment rights of the poor? A common stereotype of people receiving public assistance is they are people who are drug addicts, alcoholics, lazy, and don’t want to work. Stereotypes are generalizations made about a certain group of people, good or bad. Stereotypes have a ne gative affect when they keep us from seeing a person for who they really are negating the individual (Iowa State University Study Abroad Center). According to an opinion poll on, seventy percent of people responded â€Å"yes† when answering the question, â€Å"Should someone receiving welfare be drug tested?† Respondents stated reasons such as â€Å"You can’t trust someone to use free money on things they need†, â€Å"Help should be given to those who really need it not to people who are too lazy to work†¦Ã¢â‚¬ , and â€Å"I don’t believe it is fair †¦ hard-working people have to pay taxes, and the money goes to lazy people who spend our hard earned money on drugs† ( These statements are indicative of stereotyping; stereotypes being pervasive within our society (Iowa State University Study Abroad Center). However, not all applicants or recipients needing public assistance fall within the stereotype. Luis Le bron is a 35-year-old Navy veteran, father of a 4-year-old, the sole caregiver for his disabled mother and a student at the University of Central Florida. He just needs some help after having served his country and while trying to finish school and take care of his son and disabled mother (Bloom). The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) in Florida has filed a lawsuit on behalf of Lebron due to his refusal to submit to a drug test and relinquish his 4th Amendment rights. Lebron feels that, â€Å"It’s insulting and degrading that people think I’m using drugs just because I need a little help to take care of my family while I finish up my education.† The 4th Amendment of the United States Constitution states: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized (Cornell University Law School Legal Information Institute). The concept of the 4th amendment is to protect two basic freedoms – the right to privacy and freedom from random search and seizure. (Cornell University Law School Legal Information Institute). Twenty-eight states have proposed drug testing public assistance, according the National Conference of State Legislature. Utah has passed legislation requiring applicants to complete a written questionnaire screening for drug use. Georgia passed legislation requiring drug tests for all applicants. The Louisiana House endorsed random drug-testing of 20 percent of the state’s welfare recipients. Ohio is considering a pilot program to test welfare recipients. Florida’s drug testing law required applicants to pay for their tests and then would be reimbursed if the results proved negative (Prah). Federal or state laws that require suspicionless drug testing for eligibility to receive public assistance may be subject to constitutional challenge. Constitutional challenges are aimed towards privacy and unreasonable search. For searches to be reasonable, they generally must be based on suspicion, unless a â€Å"special need† can be shown that may allow for an exception. Public assistance programs do not necessarily create these special needs grounded in public safety that the Supreme Court has recognized in the past (Carpenter). There has only been litigation initiated in two states where the laws require suspicionless drug testing – Florida where the U.S. District Court issued an injunction to stop testing and Michigan where several individuals were granted a temporary injunction. A number of other applicants in Florida chose not to submit to drug testing. Because applicants are not required to explain why they chose not to submit to the tests, there is no statistical data as to the reasons why. Proponents for testing believe it is because applicants knew they would fail the test. However, opponents state that the reasoning could be because applicants may not have been able to afford the tests or because testing sites were not easily accessible (The Assoicated Press). It has been suggested that drug abuse is a major cause of welfare. However , there is only evidence, based on secondhand information, to support this. If drug use among welfare participants were reduced to the levels of non-participants, welfare participation would decline by approximately one percent (Kaestner). A report from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism states, â€Å"Proportions of welfare recipients using, abusing or dependent on alcohol or illicit drugs are consistent with proportions of both the adult U.S. population and adults who do not receive welfare† (National Institute of Health). The researchers found the rate of drug abuse and/or dependency among welfare recipients to fall between 1.3 and 3.6 percent, as opposed to a rate of 1.5 percent within the general population. Data from the National Household Survey of Drug Abuse roughly coincides with these findings, with the rate of drug dependency among welfare recipients being approximately 4 percent. Further, the data suggests that no more than one in five welfare r ecipients used illegal drugs in any given year; half of those having used only marijuana (Budd). The evidence from these three studies shows that although drug use is tied to homeless and welfare participation, proportionally to the general population there is not a significant difference. Finally, in the study by Kaestner, he suggests that for purposes of reducing welfare, public programs should focus their efforts on something besides drug use (Kaestner). There is the belief that testing welfare applicants and recipients will reduce the payment of benefits to people who are mishandling the funds. In a 2011 article from the Tampa Tribune, Whittenburg reports, with the average cost of test being approximately $30, the state would owe $28,000 – $43,000 in reimbursements for applicants who passed tests monthly. The state would save approximately $32,000 to $48,000 for rejected applicants, assuming 20 to 30 people failed the test monthly. Welfare recipients receive an average of $134 per month, so the state would save approximately $2600 to $3300 which the rejected applicants wouldn’t receive. Over a one year period, which is the disqualification period for one failed test, the state could save $32,000 to $48,000 annually on the applicants rejected in a single month. The net savings would be $3,400 to $8,200 annually on one month’s worth of rejected applicants. Over 12 months, the money saved on all rejected applicants would add up to $40,800-$98,400 for the cash assistance program that state analysts have predicted will cost $178 million this fiscal year (Whittenburg). In a 2012 article from the New York Times, Alvarez reports that during the period that the Florida state law was in effect that required drug tests for welfare applicants, there was no direct savings. It found only a few drug users and didn’t affect the number of applications. According to the law, applicants who passed the drug test were reimbursed, an average of $30 for the cost of testing. Negative testing thus cost the state a little more than $118,000. This alone is more than the cost of benefits to those who failed the test. Ultimately, this turns out to be a cost to the state of an extra $45,780 (Alvarez). In order to avert any further court proceedings initiated by plaintiffs who believe their 4th amendment rights have been violated and avert costly testing programs, it would be prudent for the Federal government to exact language that explicitly prohibits the use of suspicionless drug testing in order to receive money from federally funded programs. Rather, government officials should refocus their efforts in the fight against drugs to the recovery from substance abuse of the general public rather than targeting a specific group of people, namely welfare recipients. Citizens should petition their states representatives to vote against proposed laws that support drug testing. Further, those representatives should seek to supplement existing or fund new treatment programs with the dollars saved by eliminating drug testing programs for welfare applicants and recipi ents. Another step to solidify a stance against suspicionless testing would be an amendment to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) to include language that explicitly prohibits suspicionless testing. Given that the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism reports that substance abuse is no more prevalent in welfare applicants and recipients than the general population (National Institute of Health) then there is no basis for testing as a condition for receiving benefits. Alleviation of budgetary concerns is not guaranteed by the reduction of caseloads due to positive tests (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation). Where challenged, courts have determined that suspicionless testing is a violation of the 4th Amendment (Schaberg). North Carolina’s Governor, after vetoing a bill to implement drug testing, stated, â€Å"Drug testing †¦applicants †¦ could lead to inconsistent application †¦ That’s a recipe for government overreach and unnecessary government intrusion. This is not a smart way to combat drug abuse. Similar efforts in other states have proved to be expensive for taxpayers and did little to actually help fight drug addiction.† (Smith) Bibliography Alvarez, Lizette. â€Å"No Savings Are Found From Welfare Drug Tests.† The New York Times 18 April 2012: A14. Bloom, Rachel. â€Å"Poor People Have Rights Too.† 12 October 2011. American Civil Liberties Union. 3 August 2013 . Budd, Jordan C. â€Å"Pledge Your Body for Your Bread: Welfare, Drug Testing, and the Inferior Fourth Amendment.† 2011. William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal . 7 August 2013 . Carley, Frances. Drug Testing Welfare Recipients: A Review of Potential Costs and Savings. Lansing, 2012. Carpenter, David H. â€Å"Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits.† Report. 2013. Cornell University Law School Legal Information Institute. Fourth Amendment. n.d. 5 August 2013 . —. Fourth Amendment. n.d. 5 August 2013 . Should someone receiving welfare be drug tested? n.d. Iowa State University Study Abroad Center. Stereotypes. 7 June 2011. 21 Augusr 2013 . Kaestner, Rob ert. â€Å"Drug Use and AFDC Participation: Is There a Connection?† May 1996. the National Bureau of Economic Reearch. 6 August 2013 . National Coalition for the Homeless. â€Å"Substance Abuse and Homelessness.† July 2009. National Coalition for the Homeless. 6 August 2013 . National Institute of Health. â€Å"NIAAA Researchers Estimate Alcohol and Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence Among Welfare Recipients.† 23 October 1996. National Institute on Alocohol Abuse and Alocoholism. 7 August 2013

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Othello – Iago Character Analysis

Iago, in Shakespeare's Othello, is a deceiving character because he tells lies in order to get what he wants. He interacts with people only to manipulate them, but most importantly he never reveals his true feelings or motives. Iago might say things that suggest what his motive is, but he soon contradicts himself with another suggestion making it extremely difficult to understand him. Although Iago's true motives cannot be determined, some motives could be jealousy, the enjoyment of seeing people suffer, or power.Iago's jealous of Othello and Cassio because he thinks that both of them slept with his wife, Emilia. In Iago's first soliloquy at the end of act 1, Iago says that Othello might have slept with his wife and even though this is a rumor, he says that he will believe it. Then in his second soliloquy at the end of act 2, scene 1, Iago reiterates and once again says that Othello slept with his wife, the only difference is that now he thinks Cassio has slept with his wife too beca use he believes that Cassio is a â€Å"proper man† and a playboy.So, this seems to be a driving force for Iago to ruin Othello and Cassio. Iago's jealousy towards Othello quickly turns into a jealousy toward Cassio too because Othello appointed Cassio as lieutenant instead of Iago. Iago believes that he should be lieutenant because he has fought by Othello's side in battles and because he has actual war experience, whereas Cassio learned all of his tactics from books. So, he is jealous because he didn't get the job, but he is angry because he thinks that Othello made Cassio his lieutenant because Cassio helped Othello marry Desdemona.Iago doesn't know anything about proportion, meaning that if he has been wronged he will bring justice to himself by giving the culprit a punishment that doesn't match the crime. In this case, Iago wasn't appointed as lieutenant; therefore, he wants to torture Othello and Cassio mentally and then kill them. This could be the result of his hatred and jealousy. Another motive that might cause Iago's behavior is that he is a sadist; he just likes to enjoy watching other people suffer.Iago is a very clever person and he enjoys seeing how idiots make fools of themselves. One of these idiots is Iago's â€Å"buddy,† Roderigo. Roderigo is a typical wealthy, Venetian aristocrat who is madly in love with Desdemona and he has given Iago the task of helping him woo her. Iago uses this to his advantage, even though Iago uses Roderigo to ruin Cassio and Othello, he gets some amusement by watching Roderigo prance around and go nuts over Desdemona. Iago also finds it funny when Roderigo wants to go kill himself after he finds out that Desdemona married Othello.There are multiple times throughout the play where Roderigo should have known that Iago was just using him for money and some laughs and since Roderigo doesn't pick up on this, Iago can use Roderigo to his advantage. Power is probably the most important motive. Iago is very co nniving and clever and he can use this to manipulate people. It is clearly seen that Iago thrives for power because he loves manipulating people so that they doe exactly what he says. He does this to Roderigo many times, like when Iago tells Roderigo to give him all of his money and when he convinces Roderigo to kill Cassio.He even controls Othello to the point that Othello suspects his wife and decides to kill her. Iago's thirst for power is also seen when Cassio is appointed to be Othello's lieutenant because this was, supposedly, the basis for his revenge. He really wanted to be lieutenant because it is a very high position and with it comes a lot of power and Iago proves that he would do anything to get that sort of power. Therefore, one of Iago's motives could be that he has a tremendous thirst for power.In conclusion, many believe that Iago is just a psychopath, which is true to some extent; however, he is also very smart and clever. If he wasn't clever he would not be able to carry out his revenge because he wouldn't be able to manipulate anyone. The probable motives – power, sadism, jealousy and anger are some reasons for why Iago is psychotic, but it is nearly impossible to figure out his true motives from the text. Even though this may be true, Iago does suggest these motives and all of them are supported by the text, but even this could be one of Iago's ploys because nobody can truly understand Iago. Othello – Iago Character Analysis Iago, in Shakespeare's Othello, is a deceiving character because he tells lies in order to get what he wants. He interacts with people only to manipulate them, but most importantly he never reveals his true feelings or motives. Iago might say things that suggest what his motive is, but he soon contradicts himself with another suggestion making it extremely difficult to understand him. Although Iago's true motives cannot be determined, some motives could be jealousy, the enjoyment of seeing people suffer, or power.Iago's jealous of Othello and Cassio because he thinks that both of them slept with his wife, Emilia. In Iago's first soliloquy at the end of act 1, Iago says that Othello might have slept with his wife and even though this is a rumor, he says that he will believe it. Then in his second soliloquy at the end of act 2, scene 1, Iago reiterates and once again says that Othello slept with his wife, the only difference is that now he thinks Cassio has slept with his wife too beca use he believes that Cassio is a â€Å"proper man† and a playboy.So, this seems to be a driving force for Iago to ruin Othello and Cassio. Iago's jealousy towards Othello quickly turns into a jealousy toward Cassio too because Othello appointed Cassio as lieutenant instead of Iago. Iago believes that he should be lieutenant because he has fought by Othello's side in battles and because he has actual war experience, whereas Cassio learned all of his tactics from books. So, he is jealous because he didn't get the job, but he is angry because he thinks that Othello made Cassio his lieutenant because Cassio helped Othello marry Desdemona.Iago doesn't know anything about proportion, meaning that if he has been wronged he will bring justice to himself by giving the culprit a punishment that doesn't match the crime. In this case, Iago wasn't appointed as lieutenant; therefore, he wants to torture Othello and Cassio mentally and then kill them. This could be the result of his hatred and jealousy. Another motive that might cause Iago's behavior is that he is a sadist; he just likes to enjoy watching other people suffer.Iago is a very clever person and he enjoys seeing how idiots make fools of themselves. One of these idiots is Iago's â€Å"buddy,† Roderigo. Roderigo is a typical wealthy, Venetian aristocrat who is madly in love with Desdemona and he has given Iago the task of helping him woo her. Iago uses this to his advantage, even though Iago uses Roderigo to ruin Cassio and Othello, he gets some amusement by watching Roderigo prance around and go nuts over Desdemona. Iago also finds it funny when Roderigo wants to go kill himself after he finds out that Desdemona married Othello.There are multiple times throughout the play where Roderigo should have known that Iago was just using him for money and some laughs and since Roderigo doesn't pick up on this, Iago can use Roderigo to his advantage. Power is probably the most important motive. Iago is very co nniving and clever and he can use this to manipulate people. It is clearly seen that Iago thrives for power because he loves manipulating people so that they doe exactly what he says. He does this to Roderigo many times, like when Iago tells Roderigo to give him all of his money and when he convinces Roderigo to kill Cassio.He even controls Othello to the point that Othello suspects his wife and decides to kill her. Iago's thirst for power is also seen when Cassio is appointed to be Othello's lieutenant because this was, supposedly, the basis for his revenge. He really wanted to be lieutenant because it is a very high position and with it comes a lot of power and Iago proves that he would do anything to get that sort of power. Therefore, one of Iago's motives could be that he has a tremendous thirst for power.In conclusion, many believe that Iago is just a psychopath, which is true to some extent; however, he is also very smart and clever. If he wasn't clever he would not be able to carry out his revenge because he wouldn't be able to manipulate anyone. The probable motives – power, sadism, jealousy and anger are some reasons for why Iago is psychotic, but it is nearly impossible to figure out his true motives from the text. Even though this may be true, Iago does suggest these motives and all of them are supported by the text, but even this could be one of Iago's ploys because nobody can truly understand Iago.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

A Significant Symbol in U.S. Contemporary History Essay

The statement above is just one of the several famous and affecting quotes from a former president of the United States of America, Dwight David Eisenhower. In this short and concise statement, his general principles, beliefs, and ideologies may be observed. This man with a huge heart for peace and humanity has been perceived by millions of Americans as a tough yet upright and high-profiled symbol of the government over the decades. However, this man who has been looked up to by the whole of America may be discovered to have humble beginnings—brought up from a simple family, he was an average boy who grew up to fulfill great dreams and great aspirations for the United States of America. On the 14th day of October in 1890, Dwight David Eisenhower, of David Eisenhower, a mechanic, and Ida Elizabeth Stover, a religious pacifist, was born (Kelly). As a child, he had to help his family and work with extra effort in order to suffice their everyday necessities. He was brought up in a simple yet very religious environment where people are exposed to real-life plain-living (The Eisenhower Foundation). He was born in Denison, Texas, but they eventually moved to Abilene in Kansas where he spent his early education in humble community schools. During this stage of his life, he was raised to be a fun loving youth who was fascinated with the Western American history and had always dreamed of getting into college and obtaining a degree which was considered an extravagance for families like his during that time (The Eisenhower Foundation). It was in Abilene where he had his early foundations, and it was also the place where he acquired his early values which eventually molded him to what people know him for—a noble and principled individual. Eisenhower joined the U. S. Military at West Point, New York on the 14th day of June in 1911 (â€Å"Dwight David Eisenhower†). Here, he was made into a principled and trained fighter which helped him to reach the rank of Second Lieutenant on September 1915. This was the start of his career in the military which have been a difficult battle and a rich learning experience as well for the fighter Eisenhower. In his entire military career, he has been blessed with the might of an ultimate warrior and a fair mind of a just leader. He has been part of several historical events such as McArthur’s venture to the Philippine Islands and the First and Second World War (â€Å"Dwight David Eisenhower†). Eventually, he was able to receive several recognitions due to his selfless and self-sacrificing service for the United States. On the 4th day of November in 1952, he was awarded with the greatest authority an American citizen could ever have; he became the 34th president of the Unites States of America (The Eisenhower Foundation). As it appears, the presidents of the world are given this special privilege of being immortalized through their works and principles. However, people may still question why a person such as Dwight Eisenhower should be remembered when all the other presidents seem to have done the same thing: to serve the country. As Eisenhower ventured in the greatest challenge to rule America, he was faced with serious challenges through the problems and obstacles in the political and economic sectors. The American values and the national security have been put in great risk by the powerful Europe and Asia which vexed the newly appointed president (Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission). Yet, despite these challenges, he maintained his aim on his strategies and game-plans on how he can win every battle that the country was facing at that time, such as the Cold War which he skillfully handled with utmost determination. In addition, as Eisenhower went through the most difficult and complex challenges as a president, he was able to maintain the balance in the national budget, the credibility of the country’s fiscal responsibility, and the public works that were significant in the lives of his people. He became remarkable in his efforts to establish sturdy innovations to the government as a whole and to his presidency in order to improve not just the country’s infrastructures but also the morale and dignity of the government (Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission). Eisenhower also had that incomparable heart for his people. He recognized the needs and the grievances of the less fortunate Americans which led him to establish agencies like the Department of Health and the Education and Welfare in 1953, while he also made improvements in the Social Security through increased benefits for millions of Americans (Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission). These were just some of his simple yet very significant efforts that will forever rest in Americans’ memories as he left them after a long heart ailment on the solemn day of March 28, 1969 uttering his last words, â€Å"I want to go; God take me. † (The Eisenhower Foundation). Among the many presidents that the United States has met, Dwight Eisenhower created a difference as inspired by his upbringing. It provided him enough courage and determination to reach greater heights. It may appear that the function and role of the American president is one of the hardest and most complicated in the world. Yet, to think that Eisenhower was able to go through it while maintaining a spiritual and fair heart is also commendable. A leader who does not allow his power and authority to rule his heart has also been attributed to Eisenhower by the people themselves. This is because while he was a man who was very well exposed to violence and wars, he spoke of peace and freedom from strife. Over his years of service, aside from literally fighting for his nation and helping to winning the wars, he was able to win the trust and confidence of his people through keeping his values and morale in his leadership strategy. Truly, it may be hard to find a perfect leader. Nevertheless, finding a leader like Eisenhower who had a sense of humor and integrity at the same time can also be one in a million chances. Considering the accounts of history which tell stories of Eisenhower as a hero of America, it may appear that he indeed played a significant role in the U. S. contemporary history. A man who led a simple life as a child and grew up to become the person with the highest authority in America but never abused his powers for wealth and personal interest is indeed worthy of remembrance. Indeed, no person must be judged according to his or her roots. Certainly, societal status does not in any way make a discerning factor to tell the worth and value of a person, because if there is any symbol and example who best represents a story of humble roots to the height of glory and honor in America, it would be undeniably someone like former President Dwight Eisenhower of the United States. Works Cited Bancroft, David G. â€Å"Dwight D. Eisenhower: 34th President (1953-1961). † USA Patriotism. 2002. 24 November 2008 . Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission. Why Memoralize Eisenhower?. 27 August 2008. 24 November 2008 . â€Å"Dwight David Eisenhower†. The Eisenhower Library Information Resources. September 2000. Ibiblio. 24 November 2008 . The Eisenhower Foundation. Biography: Dwight David Eisenhower October 14, 1890-March 28, 1969. 05 August 2008. Eisenhower. com. 24 November 2008 . Kelly, Martin. â€Å"Dwight D. Eisenhower- Thirty-Fourth President of the United States. † About. com: American History. 24 November 2008. .

Friday, September 27, 2019

Entry #5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Entry #5 - Essay Example He even perceives hostility at the inn but this does not stop him from his pursuit. Robins similarly meets a hostile response from a guard that forces him to run away, by the church, he meets the previous inn attendant in a scary outfit, blocks the man’s way to demand for directions to his uncle and does not leave the man’s way even after threat. These identify a persistent character that withstands all odds with the aim of achieving set objectives (Hawthorne 4-20). Robins psychological persistence is however evident in his ability to control his emotions and not yield to the crowd’s intended humiliation when they pass with his uncle. While the crowd, led by the man whom Robin met at the inn and the church, laugh at him, Robins manages to laugh, even louder, in spite of the fact that the uncle who held his hopes is a captive. This ends the crowd’s laugh and the multitude proceeds with their march (Hawthorne 25-

Thursday, September 26, 2019

I have to choose one of these two Article to write a comment about one Essay

I have to choose one of these two Article to write a comment about one of them - Essay Example It is a qualitative research which sheds light on the feedback of participants and concludes based on the results of analysis. The fundamental objective of this research is to determine the perceptions as according to the definition adopted by Barkhuizen (1998). His definition connotes perception as an interaction of three actions; expressing one’s feelings, forming a judgment and making a prediction. Bialystok and Hakuta (1994) also call their attention on perception as the interaction of the above three processes. Hence, this concept of perception governs the results of this investigative study. The study calculates the utility or â€Å"usefulness† of interacting with a partner. Being a qualitative study, the researcher has pulled together the opinions, experiences and feelings of the individuals in order to identify the factors which affect student interactions. The by-products of the study were the gains and losses, struggles, investments, motivations and ideologies about languages of the learners/students. â€Å"Usefulness† in this study refers to whether if individuals reap the benefit of interaction in terms of improvement in grammar, lexis, pronunciation or even if they learn something new which they did not know prior to the interaction. Although some participants were of the opinion that they sought to converse with a student who had better command over English language than them, so they can receive better guidance or get a chance to be rectified improving their language skills. On the contrary, this was not observed and errors were not noticed or corrected. Some students believed that their language skills could only be improved by guidance from the teacher or material only. However, during my experience of teaching I had found that students interact with those students who had better command over English language so they get a chance to improve

Teaching strategies to students with severe disabilities who are Research Paper

Teaching strategies to students with severe disabilities who are second language learners - Research Paper Example This paper shall discuss the various strategies which can be applied by the teacher in order to effectively teach students with severe disabilities who are also second language learners. Body Learning impaired students refer to students who have been diagnosed with learning disabilities, disabilities which are ranging from processing deficits (input, integration, storage, or output) (Rathus, 2010). It also includes function impairment, developmental dyslexia, dysphagia, aphasia, as well as low IQ scores. These impairments often imply that the students are not performing well in school and may be even delayed in their studies (Rathus, 2010). Second language students are those students who are in the process of learning a second language. More often than not, they may be immigrant students trying who are not native English speakers. The challenge in this case is how the teacher can communicate with the second language students, especially those students who are learning impaired. The t eacher must develop strategies in order to manage the challenges in teaching these students. Schools are institutions which represent the richness and diversity of culture and languages, including customs and traditions. For most students, parents, and other educators, establishing ways by which to instruct all children effectively and meaningfully is considered a professional and pedagogical responsibility (Lopez-Reyna, 2002). Specifically, ways to manage the knowledge which many people have established from the bilingual and special education fields have also been established by various academicians. Crucial to the process of teaching children is to secure a thorough understanding of his or her learning based on his or her specific learning skills, weaknesses, and needs (Wagner,, 2005). There is a need to secure a complete and informal evaluation in order to ensure that the teacher understands what the child knows, and what he already understands. The primary assumption on learning is that there is also a need to secure a strong sense of a student’s language, his home setting, his values, and his previous experiences in his current or previous school (Lopez-Reyna, Birnbaum, 2002). There are eight principles which are considered effective in teaching English language learners (Gersten and Jimenez, 1994). These principles include the need to secure higher order thinking opportunities as well as expectations, including the higher level of involvement in one’s own learning, experiences, and cultural diversity. Suggestions on the use of mediation via visual organizers and modelling the application of appropriate resources have also been made. Support for the application of collaborative and cooperative learning has also been advocated (Calderon,, 2011). A determination on which language to use for learning impaired students has often been posed. Even as the benefits of ensuring instruction in a child’s primary language has been seen in terms of general education settings, it is not clear how the learning should unfold for learning impaired students (Lopez-Reyna, 2002). Using English can be a challenge because it would take years to master the language for second language learners. In effect, teaching academic skills to students in their native language seems to be the more effective method of teaching

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Hitler's Table Talk Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 2

Hitler's Table Talk - Term Paper Example This essay describes the Hitler’s table talk that are mostly spontaneous conversations, that were held between 1941 and 1944 majorly concentrated on what Adolf Hitler, the governor of Germany commented. There were also individuals, who were given the task of taking notes from the conversation between the Hitler and his visitors. Most of the meetings consisted of Hitler and the Nazi leaders who had common interests on the topics of war and religion. Borman and Henry Picker wrote and recorded notes directly from the meeting conversation between the prominent leaders. They wrote information from the comments the German’s governor said. Some of the topics Hitler commented and discussed by the researcher of this essay were on: the religion he preferred his people to practice, the war on his enemies, and his personal life. Lastly, he commented on English language and how it was inferior to the national German language. It is stated by the researcher that Hitler believed that German language was popular globally compared to English language, which was spreading exceptionally fast. It is later concluded by the researcher of the essay that Adolf Hitler was truly a dictator to both his people and foreigners living in Germany. It is mentioned that he perceived war as a solution to all his problems and worries, therefore, killed many lives that he did not favor. In conclusion, it is stated that Hitler’s table talk has assisted the world to know what kind of mind Hitler had about various aspects in life.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

The Cuban Missile Crisis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Cuban Missile Crisis - Essay Example During 1962, the President of Soviet Union was repeatedly accused of creating a missile gap between the US and Soviet Union. At that point of time, Soviet Union was desperately behind the US in terms of balancing the power of armed forces. It felt insecure as its missiles could only be utilized against Europe, whereas US missiles were able to assault the entire Soviet Union. Furthermore, Cuba also feared about an assault from the US army. Cuba was also searching for a way to defend the island from US attack. Due to these reasons, Soviet chief conceived the idea of positioning missiles in Cuba. In order to defend the island, Cuba had approved the plan of Soviet Union to position missiles in the island. This missile positioning strategy in Cuba was intended to enhance the strategic resources and to restrict the possibility of the US threat on Cuba as well as Soviet Union. This was the build-up of a grave missile crisis in Cuba between two global superpowers2. In the US, the crisis started when satellite images exposed Soviet missiles under installation in Cuba. As the US forces scrutinized transportation activities in Cuba, gossips started to flow in Washington. Through the investigation, the US had revealed the presence of defensive missiles in Cuba. Although Soviet Union allegedly declared that there were no invasive missiles in Cuba, US had discovered the existence of missiles in Cuba. This situation resulted in intense arguments within top levels of governments. During the Cuba missile crisis, tensions started to generate from both sides3. Considering the situation, the US had asserted that any kind of nuclear launch from Cuba would be termed as an attack on the US by Soviet Union and consequently it could start a new nuclear war. In the meantime, the US had also directed Soviet Union to eliminate all the offensive missiles from Cuba. One of the most precarious moments of the crisis occurred when the US destroyers were forced to isol ate Cuba4. A

Monday, September 23, 2019

Politics & Parliament in Britain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Politics & Parliament in Britain - Essay Example The concept of parliamentary supremacy, defines parliament as the legislative body with absolute sovereignty. This serves to indicate that it is the British parliament that is superior over the other arms of government, considering that the United Kingdom parliament is able to control both the executive and the judiciary, through enacting and passing laws that would then require the other arms of the government to adhere to . Simply put, parliament is the only sovereign body in the United Kingdom, which is not bound by any law. This is because; the legislative body can change or repeal the existing laws, so that it is no longer bound by the laws. This way, it becomes a sovereign body that makes laws, but which is not bound by any written law . How has the meaning of these words, which help define responsible government, changed in Britain during the past 25 years?The statement â€Å"Parliament is the Supreme law of the land† has changed slightly during the last 25 years, most especially due to three significant developments, namely devolution, constitutional reforms and ratification of the European Union membership. In this respect, the United Kingdom has tried to establish other body entities that have powers that control the Parliament in certain way. DevolutionDevolution in Britain was established in 1997, with the establishment of three other legislative bodies, where the Scottish parliament was established, in addition to the establishment of local assemblies in Ireland and Wales .

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Human Behavior in Organization Essay Example for Free

Human Behavior in Organization Essay Human behavior in an organization determines the quality of work, progress and success of the organization. No machine and no computer can work by itself. No product is developed and manufactured by itself. Its the workforce or rather the human resources of an organization who develop ideas, create new products and services and then deliver them to the markets. Thus, it is important for the management of an organization to analyze the behavior of its entire work force. Human performance consulting is in vogue today, thanks to the greater emphasis on he psychology of the people behind the desk. Every organization differs from the other with respect to its policies, work environment, recruitment process, Job evaluation and culture. The most natural human tendency is to react positively and with great intensity where they are compensated well, encouraged well and get additional perks and holidays. In no way is it being suggested that an organization should overpay its staff. However, it must be kept in mind that the organization must treat its work force with immense dignity and respect and provide sufficient compensation. Even make the cleaning staff in your organization feel special and encourage them to do their task in the best possible way! The work force must be treated as an asset, not a liability, and once this is done you will notice remarkable change in the collective human behavior. Apart from the internal environment of the office, the external personal environment plays a major role in his/her behavior and attitude. We are social animals with unique aspirations, hopes, insecurities. Only those who enjoy their work can have a healthy balance between personal and professional life. Those who dont enjoy their work will most likely not be satisfied with the work nor be content in their personal life due to the imbalance that exists. One important way to analyze human behavior is to study the relationship effectiveness. How effectively your staff communicates and relates to each other can tell you how much they care for their work and the people around them. Without proper training the office dynamic can become imbalanced Just like any natural system. It is not likely for an accountant or a biologist to sit and study human behavior ffectively. You must have trained experts who understand the unique challenges the workplace brings. Not everybody is gifted with the skill to foresee a persons behavior beforehand. JM Perry, through his coaching packages, helps develop these skills inside organizations. You can have professionals attending one-on-one sessions or learning through live chats or audio-video CDs. After completing Perrys coaching you will be able to comprehend how to analyze human behavior and how to improve your behavior.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

William Blake and William Wordsworth | Comparison

William Blake and William Wordsworth | Comparison William Blake and William Wordsworth are two poets that have a few very different views on life and the world. And quite a few close similarities, particularly their writing style, as in they way express their thoughts. William Wordsworth was born on 7 April 1770 in Cockermouth, Cumberland, in the Lake District. His father was John Wordsworth, an attorney. The country and beautiful landscape struck Wordsworths imagination and gave him that love of nature that he is now famous for. As a country poet he isnt used to the dark alleys of London like Blake was and rather than seeing cities as a mark on the landscape, he sees them as an addition. A thing of equal beauty This City now doth, like a garment, wear, The beauty of the morning; silent, bare. You can tell he was only visiting London as he compares it to all the natural metaphors and similies he is used to, and it is a surprise to write about cities, since most of his other poems were about nature. If he maybe had stayed a few months he would not have thought as much to it as he does in the poem, maybe because it is so different to the kind of landscape he is used to he sees it in a positive light. He visited France in 1790 and was influenced by the turmoil of the French Revolution he was also greatly affected by his brothers death in 1805. The oppressive rule of France and the chaos and bloodshed of the revolution that he witnessed hit hard on Wordsworths soft, emotional way of thinking. He had to reinvent a whole new understanding of the world and of the human mind in more solid terms. William Blake was born November 28th 1757, it is evident in his poems he had an awareness of the harsh realities of his life-In every voice, in every ban, the mind-forgd manacles I hear. Here Blake is talking about the oppression of the city of London and how the mind is chained-, which is metaphorical, but he is saying almost how the people of the city are losing their individuality. As a young boy he had a vision of seeing angels in the trees. These mystical visions returned throughout his life, leaving a mark on his poetry and outlook on life. His artistic talent was noticed by many and encouraged. At ten years old, he began engraving, he was very creative and he started his first poem 1773. Blake hated the church; he believed that the truth was learned by personal revelation, not by teaching. In the end he started to think that all religions were one and there wasnt any correct religion to follow. -Crying weep, weep in notes of woe; Where are thy father and mother, say? They are both gone up to the church to pray.- Quotes from The Chimney Sweeper this is where an innocent child having a hard life as a chimney sweep who wants to see his mother and father but has been turned away by them and the Church. Showing how evil and wrong the church is in Blakes opinion for turning away a poor boy that needs help. Wordsworths verdict after Blakes death reflected many opinions of the time: There was no doubt that this poor man was mad, but there is something in the madness of this man which interests me more than the sanity of Lord Byron and Walter Scott. Blakes style of writing was mostly pointing out a lot of negative aspects about things, relating many objects or places to political problems. In Blakes London- Blake has a very pessimistic and sad look on the city. Blake also used metaphors, similes and personification but referring to the political problems happening, as well as problems with the city- this could be not just London but all cities in Britain at the time. For example- every blackening church appalls this is not just skin deep as the church walls were actually black with pollution and dirt, but on a deeper level where he is talking about the corruption in the church. Wordsworth compares his version of London to beauty thats different from surface appearances, and he used imagery to describe Londons beauty comparing it to natural valleys, green countryside and trickling rivers and streams. For example-Never did the sun more beautifully sleep, in his first splendour valley, rock, or hill There he is being more philosophical and pensive; there is less description and more awe of the actual city. Many of his works at that time expressed the beauty of a pure nature, while Composed upon Westminster Bridge praised the way nature and civilization could coexist- how the city was just as beautiful as the countryside but in a different, deeper way. Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie, Open unto the fields, and to the sky. In many of his poems, Wordsworth begins to go more and more into his own mind, not actually looking at surface appearances but looking through that sometimes into an almost trance-like state. Of harmony, and the deep power of joy, We see into the life of things. He says that in one of his poems in Tintern Abbey. He starts this by looking at the beauty of the landscape, then his mind drifts into deeper things, like his understanding of life and the world around him; Until, the breath of this corporeal frame And even the motion of our human blood, Almost suspended, we are laid asleep, In body, and become a living soul. Blake however is quite different and is deep in a different way. But here he uses a very negative tone to help convey his point. The whole way through he continues his downbeatoppressive tone and describing everything thats wrong with London. And mark in every face I meet, Marks of weakness, marks of woe.- Commenting on how everyone in the city are the victims of an endless work, to keep the city running constantly, he describes how this is sucking out the souls of people the more they work. Blake also seems to use a downbeat negative tone to give an actual gloomy effect. He sayshow the youthful harlots curse, blasts the new-born infants tear. That line basically means that teenagers are forced into prostitution for money and how if they are impregnated without a father then that child is doomed to be the son of a prostitute. The child is born into a life of poverty and the cycle just keeps going on and on. Wordsworth- possibly because of a better upbringing, has a more positive outlook on life and can find it easy to see most things in their own kind of beauty. Unlike Blake who found it hard not to look at the landscape itself but see everything wrong with what it stood for- And the hapless soldiers sigh, Runs in blood down palace walls. From London instead of marvelling at the palace like Wordsworth would have done- he looks at it and reads between the lines- how soldiers are sent to their deaths, and how the city profits from it. In conclusion I think that Blake and Wordsworth are similar in styles on writing but believe very different things. Blake was thought mad by many but I think he just had strong thoughts coming from his own experiences. Wordsworth on the other hand was simply a very philosophical poet, in many of his poems going into a trance-like state seeing the inner beauty of things.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Trusted Platform Module (TPM)

Trusted Platform Module (TPM) Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is a term used to define a chip or microcontroller. This chip or microcontroller can be placed into a motherboard configuration such as devices like mobile devices, or a personal computer (PCs). The requirements and application was presented and established by the Trusted Computing Group (TCG), to deliver a solution where a reliable and genuine relationship exists amongst hardware and software configurations. This facility was executed through cryptographic and hashing algorithms. Additional, TPM offers remote confirmation, a verification and authentication process for other third party software. TPM is a global standard for a protected crypto processor, which is a devoted microcontroller or chip intended to protect hardware by joining cryptographic keys into devices. TPMs technical requirements were established and written by TCG and launched in 2003. TCG was created as a nonprofit from inception and known to have brands like Microsoft, IBM, Intel, and Hewlett-Packard as clients. TPM just as well as others has flaws, and suffers from attacks. These attacks include offline dictionary and OIAP attacks; nevertheless, when joined with other endpoint control systems like multifactor authentication, network access control, and malware detection, TPMs contribution to a sound security platform is valid. (Sparks, 2007) This survey is a complete review of research conducted on TPM, its components, mechanisms, application, and authorization protocols. Furthermore, a description of some common attacks to which TPM has been a victim will be presented. Finally, more recent and future implementations will be discussed, such as the incorporation of TPM within mobile and smart devices and even within cloud computing. First, it is important to start with an overview of the TPM specification, its components, and its purpose. The TPM background section discusses in some detail an overarching summary of TPM. This will include what the motivations and advantages are to using TPM as well as how the different types of keys function. Also discussed is the evolution of TPM over time in how it functions in both its hardware encryption but also its capabilities. 2.1 TPM Summary A Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is a cryptographic coprocessor that replaced smart cards in the 1990s and then became present on most commercial personal computer (PCs) and servers. TPMs are almost ubiquitous in computer hardware and typically not seen by users because of the lack of compelling applications that use them. However, this situation has changed effective with TPM version 1.16 by adding the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) bit which is a static flag that verifies if the device or firmware the TPM is attached to is FIPS 140-2 cryptographic module compliant. This compliance is then registered by the consolidated validation certificates granted when FIPS 140-2 is validated and are then registered and published at NIST as public record listed alphabetically by vendor located at (TCG FIPS 140-2 Guidance for TPM 2.0, ver 1, rev.8, 2016) Therefore, the line of thinking of TPM has increasingly becom e one of importance and an essential ingredient to cryptographic defense community whom are required to prove their FIPS 140-2 compliance. However, this was not always the case since security was not a mainstream issue in the early years of the Internet. 2.2 Motivation to use TPM The motivation for TPM began decades after the advent of what is known as the Internet. From the creation of Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in 1969 it took almost nineteen (19) years for us to become aware of the first known exploit called the Internet Worm in 1988. (Pearson Education, Inc., 2014) Until this time the focus had always been on the development of the computer with no security hardware and software that was easy to use. There was a real concept of information security threats. However, in the 1990s there was the concept of the potential of commerce the Internet would have and the need to secure the PCs that would exchange with that commerce. This prompted many computer engineers to convene and form and develop the first TPMs which became known to be as the Trusted Computing Group (TPM: A Brief Introduction, 2015). A main objective of this group was a cost effective approach to create a hardware anchor for PC system security on which secure systems could be buil t. This first resulted in a TPM chip that was required to be attached to a motherboard and the TPM command set was architected to provide all functions necessary for its security use cases. 2.2.1.Evolution TPM has evolved considerably over the years to become the trusted platform it is today. The earlier TPM 1.2 standard was incorporated into billions of PCs, servers, embedded systems, network gear and other devices, the evolving Internet of Things and increasing demand for security beyond traditional PC environment led TCG to develop a new TPM specification, which recently was adopted as an international standard ISO/IEC 11889:2015. For more flexibility of application and to enable more widespread use of the specification, TCG created TPM 2.0 with a library approach. This allows users to choose applicable aspects of TPM functionality for different implementation levels and levels of security. Also, new features and functions were added, such as algorithm agility, the ability to implement new cryptographic algorithms as needed (Trusted Platform Module (TPM): A Brief Introduction, 2015). ISO/IEC 11889-1:2015 ISO/IEC 11889-1:2015 defines the architectural elements of the Trusted Platform Module (TPM), a device which enables trust in computing platforms in general. Some TPM concepts are explained adequately in the context of the TPM itself. Other TPM concepts are explained in the context of how a TPM helps establish trust in a computing platform. When describing how a TPM helps establish trust in a computing platform, ISO/IEC 11889-1:2015 provides some guidance for platform requirements. However, the scope of ISO/IEC 11889 is limited to TPM requirements (Trusted Platform Module (TPM) Summary, 2008). 2.3 TPM Working Functionality The TPM (Trusted Platform Module) is a computer chip (microcontroller) that can securely store artifacts used to authenticate the platform on a PC or laptop. These artifacts can include passwords, certificates, or encryption keys. A TPM can also be used to store platform measurements that help ensure that the platform remains trustworthy. This is critical because Authentication and attestation are necessary to ensure safer computing in all environments. Trusted modules can be used in computing devices other than PCs, such as mobile phones or network equipment (Trusted Platform Module (TPM) Summary, 2008). . Figure 1: Components of a TPM 2.3.1 Hardware-based cryptography This cryptography makes certain that the data stored in hardware is guarded against malicious threats such as external software attacks. Also, many types of applications storing secrets on a TPM can be developed to strengthen security by increasing the difficulty of access without proper authorization. If the configuration of the platform has been altered as a result of unauthorized activities, access to data and secrets can be denied and sealed off using these applications. TPM is not responsible for control of other proprietary or vendor software running on a computer. However, TPM can store pre-run time configuration parameters, but it is other applications that determine and implement policies associated with this information. Also, processes can be made secure and applications such as email or secure document management. For example, if at boot time it is determined that a PC is not trustworthy because of unexpected changes in configuration, access to highly secure applications can be blocked until the issue is remedied. With a TPM, one can be more certain that artifacts necessary to sign secure email messages have not been affected by software attacks. And, with the use of remote attestation, other platforms in the trusted network can make a determination, to which extent they can trust information from another PC. Attestation or any other TPM functions do not transmit personal information of the user of the platform. 2.3.2 Capabilities TPM can improve security in many areas of computing, including e-commerce, citizen-to-government applications, online banking, confidential government communications and many other fields where greater security is required. Hardware-based security can improve protection for VPN, wireless networks, file encryption (as in Microsofts BitLocker) and password/PIN/credentials management. TPM specification is OS-agnostic, and software stacks exist for several Operating Systems. 2.4TPM Components Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is the core component of trusted computing. TPM is implemented as a secure hardware chip and provides the hardware Root of Trust. TPM has been designed to provide trusted computing based on Trusted Computing Group (TCG) specifications. TPM functions can be implemented either in hardware or software. A secure cryptographic chip (Figure 2) can be integrated on the motherboard of a computing device according to TPM 1.2 specifications (Angela, Renu Mary, Vinodh Ewards, 2013). Figure 2: A TPM 1.2 Chip (Source A logical layout of the TPM is represented below (Figure 3) along with the TPM components. Figure 3: TPM Component Diagram (Zimmer, Dasari, Brogam, 2009) Information flow is managed by the I/O component through the communication bus. The I/O component handles routing of messages to various components within the TPM and establishes access control for TPM functions and the Opt-in component. The non-volatile memory in the TPM is a repository for storing the Endorsement Key (EK) and the Storage Root Key (SRK). These long-term keys are the basis of key hierarchy. Owners authorization data such as password and persistent flags are also stored in the non-volatile memory (Trusted Computing Group, 2007). Platform Configuration Registers (PCR) are reset during power-offs and system restarts and can be stored in volatile or non-volatile region. In TPM v 1.1, minimum number of registers that can be implemented is 16. Registers 0-7 are allocated for TPM usage leaving the remaining registers (8-15) to be used by operating system and applications (Angela, Renu Mary, Vinodh Ewards, 2013). In TPM v 1.2, number of registers can be 24 or more and categorized as static PCRs (0-16) and dynamic PCRs (17-22). The Program Code, also known as Core Root of Trust for Measurement (CRTM) is the authoritative source for integrity measurements. Execution engine is responsible for initializing TPM and taking measurements. The execution engine is the driver behind the program code. RNG (Random Number Generator) is used for generating keys, nonce creation and to fortify passphrase entropy. The SHA-1 engine plays a key role in creating key Blobs and hashing large blocks of data. TPM modules can be shipped with various states ranging from disabled, and deactivated to fully enabled. The Opt-in component ensures the state of TPM modules during shipping. The RSA engine can be used for a variety purposes including key signing, encryption/decryption using storage keys and decryption using EK. The AIK (Attestation Identity Key) is an asymmetric key pair typically linked to the platform module that can be used to vouch for the validity of the platforms identity and configuration. The RSA key generation engine are used for creating symmetric keys of up to 2048 bits. 2.5 TPM Keys TCG keys can be categorized as signing or storage keys. Other key types defined by TCG are Platform, Identity, Binding, General and Legacy keys (Trusted Computing Group, 2007). Signing keys can be classified as general purpose keys and are asymmetric in nature. Application data and messages can be signed by the TPM using signing keys. Signing keys can be moved between TPM devices based on restrictions in place. Storage keys are asymmetric keys and primarily used for encrypting data and other keys as well as for wrapping keys. Attestation Identity Keys (AIK) are used for signing data pertaining to the TPM such as PCR register values. AIK are signing keys that cannot be exported. Endorsement Key (EK) is used for decrypting the owner authorization credentials as well as cryptic messages created by AIK. EK is not used for encryption or signing and cannot be exported. Bind keys (symmetric keys) come in handy to encrypt data on one platform and decrypt it on a different platform. Legacy keys can be imported from outside the TPM and used for signing and encrypting data. Authentication keys are responsible for securing the transport sessions related to TPM and are symmetric in nature. Endorsement Key (EK) in the TPM plays a critical role to maintain system security. TPM uses a private key EK to generate other keys which are bound to a specific EK. EK should be secured and protected from being compromised. A 160-bit AIK authentication value is necessary to use the AIK by TPM (Sparks, 2007). The parent key used for generating other keys should be loaded first and authenticated by users before TPM can load all other keys. The EK is unique to the TPM and embedded within the tamper resistant non-volatile memory (Angela, Renu Mary, Vinodh Ewards, 2013). Public EK is used for creating AIK certificates and during the process of encrypting data within the TPM. The private key pair of EK is not touched when generating signatures. Multiple AIKs can be stored within a TPM to ensure anonymity between various service providers requiring proof of identity. AIK keys should be stored in secure external storage (outside the TPM) to make them persistent. AIKs can be loaded on to th e volatile memory in the TPM when in use. TPM has a Storage Root Key which stays persistent. Keys are not stored permanently in TPM due to limited storage space. A brief description of the process involved in key generation, encryption, and decryption in TPM is outlined below (Osborn Challener, 2013). A new RSA key is generated by the TPM when a key creation request is initiated by a software. TPM concatenates a value to the RSA key, appends authorization data and then the data is encrypted using the public section of the Storage Root Key and sends an encrypted blob to the requested software. A request is sent for the key to be retrieved from the blob storage when requested by the software program. TPM uses the Storage Root Key for decryption and validates the proof value and password before loading the key into TPM memory. This loaded key is referred to as the parent key and can be used for subsequent key creation forming key hierarchies. The TMP security section discusses in some detail the various ways in which security is implemented and vulnerable. TPM authorization protocols in both version 1.2 and version 2.0 are addressed. Several examples of different types of TPM vulnerabilities are outlined as well as ways to verify the integrity of the system to protect against this vulnerabilities and what the future holds for TPM. 3.1 TPM Authorization Protocols TPM 1.2 Authorization The basic definition of TPM authorization is the process of verifying that software is allowed to use a TPM key. For TPM 1.2 this process is accomplished by utilizing a couple basic commands in an authorization session; typically using passwords or values stored in the Platform Configuration Registers (PCRs) which are referred to as authorization data. The three types of authorization sessions for TPM 1.2 are: Object Independent Authorization Protocol (OIAP), which creates a session that allows access to multiple objects, but works only for certain commands; Object Specific Authorization Protocol (OSAP), which creates a session that can manipulate only a single object, but allows for new authorization transfer; and Delegate-Specific Authorization Protocol (DSAP), which delegates access to an object without disclosing the authorization data (Nyman, Ekberg, Asokan, 2014). Commands are then used to manipulate the keys within an authorization session. Software can prove that it is trusted by sending a command which includes the password hash to verify it has knowledge of the password. Also the locking of non-volatile random-access memory (NVRAM) to PCRs and particular localities is utilized for two different authorizations; one for reading and one for writing. While effective, these authorization mechanisms created a relatively rigid authorization system which make it difficult to administrate the sharing of TPM keys and data (Osborn Chaneller, 2013). 3.1.2 TPM 2.0 Authorization The implementation of TPM 2.0 on the other hand, takes a couple different approaches by introducing enhanced authorization (EA). EA takes methods from the TPM 1.2 authorization methods and improves upon them by incorporating features mentioned in Table 1 below. Table 1. TPM 2.0 Authorization Feature Description Passwords in the clear Reduces overhead in environments where the security of hash message authentication (HMAC) may not be feasible due to its extra cost and complexity HMAC key In some cases when the software talking to the TPM is trusted but the OS is untrusted (like in a remote system), it could be useful to use HMAC for authorization the same way as used in TPM 1.2 Signature methods Allows IT employees to perform maintenance on a TPM by authenticating using a smart card or additional data such as a biometric fingerprint or GPS location. This ensures that passwords cant be shared or compromised by unauthorized users and that an additional verification check is conducted PCR values as a proxy for system boot state If the system management module software has been compromised, this prevents the release of the full-disk encryption key Locality as a proxy for command origins Can be used to indicate whether a command originated from the CPU in response to a special request. Time Can limit the use of a key to certain times of the day Internal counter values Limits the use of an object so that a key can only be used a certain number of times indicated by an internal counter Value in a non-volatile (NV) index Use of a key is restricted to when certain bits are set to 1 or 0 NV index Authorization is based on whether the NV index has been written Physical presence Requires proof that the user is physically in possession of the platform (Table created with information from (Arthur, Challener, Goldman, 2015)) These features can be combined to create more complex policies by using the logical operators AND or OR which allows for the creation of policies to include multifactor/multiuser authentication of resources, limited time constraints for resources, and/or revocation of resources. (Arthur, Challener, Goldman, 2015). 3.2TPM Vulnerabilities When ranked against other standards, TPM comes in as highly secure but that isnt to say that it is immune to all attacks. There are several vulnerabilities that can allow an attacker to circumvent TPMs level of security. The sections below explain a few vulnerabilities that attackers can use to exploit TPM, and the mitigation techniques one could deploy to manage the risk. Dictionary Attack TPM authorization relies on a 20-byte authorization code that is sent by the requestor which if not properly locked down can result in an attacker guessing their way past the authorization. TPM issues guidance on how best to mitigate and prevent these attacks; however, the guidance is not very detailed and rather leaves the specifics up to the implementer. For example, one could implement a design that has TPM disable further input whenever it encounters more than 3 failed attempts. This would effectively prevent online dictionary attacks and has the added benefit of also preventing Denial-of-Service attacks. Weve spoken about preventing online dictionary attacks but where the threat truly comes into play is with an offline-based attack. This vulnerability comes into play when the authorization code is easily guessable, or in other words, poorly implemented. An attacker could observe a given command, the associated Key-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) sent by the requestor and finally, the TPM response back. Since the HMAC is created from the authorization code, session handle and nonces; an attacker can utilize a dictionary attack to try different nonces and authorization codes with the given HMAC algorithm. A match would then provide the attacker with the correct authorization code. This offline attack bypasses TPMs lockout policy and though the attacker but sift through the random nonces and authorization codes, the method is a viable means of attack because it can be reasonably executed given the availability of time and computing resources. The mitigation for this comes down t o proper configuration and ensuring that the authorization code is not easily guessable. DRAM Attack Though this attack is not directly against TPM, it is worth mentioning as it is a viable way to circumvent TPMs security authorization protocols. TPM maintains its keys within non-volatile memory within the TPM component; however, when these keys are pulled by a requestor or requesting application, they are stored within Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM). It is well known that one can easily exploit DRAM to extract valuable information (keys, passcodes, etc) with this even being demonstrated against Microsofts BitLocker encryption utility. During reboot, Windows would load the encryption keys stored within TPM into DRAM, prior to even prompting the user. Given this, an attacker could go in and dump the raw memory to an external device, obtain the keys, then utilize those keys to decrypt the disk. This flaw enabled attackers to gain access to data on stolen laptops, even with full disk encryption. This hits on how a system is designed and ensuring that every detail is accounted for. Even if your system has a TPM, it is only going to be as secure as the weakest component within the overall system. OIAP Replay Attack Replay attacks are a method used by many attackers across a multitude of systems. TPM is no exception and is vulnerable to replay attacks based on several characteristics. First, a TPM Object-Independent Authorization Protocol (OIAP) session can be left open for an indefinite period. The authorized session is only closed by the requestor whenever an abnormal message is received and finally, the HMAC that wraps the message can detect alterations to the message but cannot distinguish between a deliberate alteration and a simple network error. For example, an attacker would first capture a requestors authorized command for later use. The attacker then sends an abnormal message to the requestor which then fools it into resetting the session. The requestor is unable to distinguish between the abnormal message and a network error so no concern is raised. Since there is no concern, the TPM keeps the authorized session open, allowing the attacker the ability to replay the previously captured command through the open session. This could lead to the attacker being able to corrupt or even overwrite a subsequent command issued by the requestor. The TPM would not be able to notice this type of attack which is truly concerning based upon the foundational principles of TPM and its assurance of being able to detect unauthorized modifications to data. 3.3TPM Attestations Attestation is the method a platform uses to prove to another platform that it is in a particular configuration by using a digitally signed set of cryptographic hash values which creates a trust between platforms (Fisher, McCune, Andrews, 2011). The network server first creates a cryptographic random value (used to prevent replay attacks) called a nonce, which is then sent to the client. Software on the client then sends the nonce to the TPM and specifies an identity key. The TPM hashes the PCR values along with the nonce and then signs the hash with a private key. The client software sends this back to the server which then verifies the platform configuration by comparing the public portion of the identity key. This process provides hardware-based assurance that software on these platforms has not been modified. (Osborn Chaneller, 2013). Figure 5 provides a visual representation of attestation as provided by (Osborn Chaneller, 2013) Figure 5: Attestation In order for the attestation process to be valid however, it must be able to be proven that the TPM values from the client are not being spoofed. This can be accomplished using a couple of key components: attestation identity keys (AIK), which are created by the TPM and securely stored on disk before being reloaded into volatile TPM memory; endorsement keys (EK), which are hardcoded by the manufacturer into the TPM chip; and a privacy certificate authority (CA), which is a third-party validation entity. The first step of this process occurs when the public half of the AIK and EK is sent to the CA. The CA then uses the public EK certificate to verify that the request comes from a valid TPM by comparing it to a list of all valid TPM manufacturers public keys. The CA then puts the public AIK in a certificate and encrypts it with the public EK. This ensures that the only party that can decrypt it is the computer with the AIK of the corresponding TPM, thus confirming that the TPM from the requesting platform is trusted, and therefore, the attestation method is trusted as well. (Uppal Brandon, 2011). 3.4Application of TPM With the ever-evolving landscape of technology, there is an increased need for faster, more reliable and more secure methods of protecting private and personal data. TPM is a product of those evolving requirements and has thus been incorporated into many different sets of applications. This section will expand upon those sets of applications and delve into how TPM is utilized within the industry today. Encryption One of the most popular uses of TPM is to ensure the confidentiality of user data by providing full encryption capabilities for disks and file systems. The full disk encryption utilizes symmetric encryption with a key created from the users supplied passcode and used during the initial configuration and system boot. This protects against the loss of the disk drive and serves to facilitate disposal or repurposing of the drive since deleting the keys will result in the drive being wiped. The same method is utilized for the encryption of file systems and can be done so to protect specific nodes. Policy Enforcement With Bring-Your-Own-Device (BYOD) policies becoming more and more prevalent within the commercial businesses, TPM has found a use as a policy enforcement mechanism for remote access. TPM can be used to establish trust and verify a devices integrity before allowing remote connection to an organizations intranet. This utilization of TPM is comprised of a series of hashes that measure the predefined sequence of code loads, starting with the boot of the BIOS through the loading of the applications. The chain of hash measures are then compared to the stored value in order to validate the systems integrity. This is very useful for establishing the base operating environment and developing a baseline with which access control policies can be developed. Password Protection TPM protected storage provides a method of storing encryption/decryption keys as well as providing utility management of user passwords. Typically, the password manager retrieves the then encrypted password from TPM, decrypts it, and then sends it to the client application for validation. Since the passwords are usually sent to the client applications over plain-text, this is a serious vulnerability in which TPM can provide a solution for. Using the 20-byte authorization code, a TPM object is created for each user password with this then being saved in the objects authorization field. To verify a password, an application would need to send an OIAP request to access the TPM object. TPMs response to this request would indicated whether the password was correct or not. As a plus, this serves as both password storage and verification with the password never being sent to the application thus eliminating the vulnerability associated with plain-text. 3.5TPM Future TPM is compatible with many hardware and software platforms in use in todays commercial markets and is already in use by several major business functions, to include: Banking, E-Commerce, Biometrics and even Antivirus applications. Looking forward, TPM will play an even bigger role in the evolving mobile market, providing more enhanced security for cell phones, GPS tracking systems, tablets and more. TPM can be used to secure the Mobile Operating System (OS) from being modified by attackers and can be used to further secure authorized access by implementing a hard-coded digital signature solution. For GPS devices, TPM can be used to protect against the modification of system defined location parameters, thus preventing an attacker from adjusting those parameters to satisfy their ends. The biggest constraint facing TPMs implementation within the mobile realm is the space and power constraints on mobile devices. Research is being done on whether a mobile instantiation of TPM should be based on firmware, software or even hardware. A hardware implementation would be the most secure; however, the firmware-based option will likely prove to be the best approach as it will balance the security of the device with the size limitations. TPM is also being looked at with regards to providing security enhancements for cloud-based services. Cloud computing has migrated most of the standard desktop to a virtual and remotely

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Progressive Era Essay examples -- essays research papers

The Progressive Era The progressive era was a time of great change, the way people thought and what they did began to change quickly. Industry and business also changed a great deal in this era, with the many new inventions and strong businessmen things where rapidly changing. The progressive era lasted about 40 years, from 1879-1920. In 1879 Tomas Edison invented the electric light, I guess you could say he just lit the way for may other inventions that people made during this time period. The progressives where middle class people that where mostly composed of young people who wanted things to change, they believed that educating people was the best way to overcome a problem. They formed volunteer organizations that people would come to and they would educate them on what they thought the problem was with something. Some of the organizations I found where: (American Bar Association, U.S Chamber of Commerce, National Association for the advancement of Colored People, and many others. I think that they did this to increase the awareness of a problem and try to fight that problem with strength in numbers and educations, both are very strong weapons when tackling a problem. Muckraking was another way people got their point across, they would find out all the information that they could on a person and they would basically, just drag their good name thought the mud, telling the people about, the things that they might not know, the corrupt things and bad deals and kickbacks...

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

How does the poet express the difficulties of being in a minority? :: English Literature

How does the poet express the difficulties of being in a minority? In the poem ‘Search for my tongue’ Bhatt has expressed how through her own personal experience she has found learning a new language to be difficult physically and emotionally. Throughout the poem she has conveyed how her ‘mother language’ Gujarati slowly started to erode, as she took on her ‘foreign tongue’ English. She shows this through not only the vocabulary of the poem but the structure etc too. The intention of the poem is to convey how although learning a new language is extremely difficult, your ‘mother tongue’ will always remain an essential part of your identity. Bhatt is worried that she is forgetting her mother tongue and that her second language will never be as natural. At the start of the poem Bhatt uses a second person address and conversational language ‘You ask me what I mean’ and rhetorical questions ‘I ask you’ which makes it sound like she is talking to the reader about her problem and asking them to empathise with her. When Bhatt says ‘what would you do’ it suggests a level of detachment as does the absence of imagery in the opening lines. The tone is quite negative and quite depressing. She sounds as if she is in despair. Towards the middle of the poem she uses Gujarati to show us her ‘mother tongue’ and emphasise its great difference from English. In the last part of the poem Bhatt uses metaphorical language, which is more poetic than previously in the poem and very different to the conversational language at the start for example, she uses the metaphor of her mother tongue growing back as a flower. The structure of the poem is quite unusual due to it not being broken down into regular and conventional stanzas. The form of the poem reminds the reader of how your language develops and grows over time. The first part of the poem explains the problem Bhatt has of being fluent in two languages. She repeats ‘tongue’ and uses the image of having ‘two tongues in your mouth’ to try to convey the difficulty of it to the reader. The next part of the poem explains how when she is asleep she dreams in her mother tongue, it is the middle of the poem and the centre of the conflict she is experiencing as she feels she is not content with either language and worries she may lose her Indian Identity by taking on the second language as she is stuck between cultures. In line 12 the ‘mother tongue’ seems to take on physical

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Promote Positve Behaviour

1. Identify types of challenging behaviour.There are many types of behaviour that can be described as challenging. Examples of these include: self-injury (eg head banging, self-biting, skin picking)  physical aggression or violent behaviour (eg punching, scratching, kicking, biting, pulling hair) verbal aggression (eg threats, insults, excessive swearing)  disruption and destruction of property or the environment (eg ripping clothes, breaking windows or furniture) racist or sexist behaviour.Stereotyped behaviours (eg rocking, spinning, hand flapping) inappropriate or unacceptable sexual behaviour (eg masturbating in public, touching others inappropriately or showing pornography) smearing and urination (eg smearing faeces, urinating in inappropriate places) stealing (eg taking possessions/food that do not belong to the individual) manipulative, deceitful and non-compliant behaviour (eg refusing to move, refusing to engage in an activity despite being able, telling lies) absconding (eg leaving school/home/residential service without permission).3. Explain the steps that are taken to maintain the dignity of and respect for an individual when responding to an incident of challenging behaviour. Children must always be treated with dignity and respect with. This may be difficult when their behaviour is threatening to their peers or members of staff, however it is essential to remember that it’s the behaviour that is adverse and not the YP. When challenging the behaviour it is important to disapprove of the negative behaviour, not the individual.Should the situation require reactive strategies, it is important to uphold best practise and continue to treat the YP in a child centred way, according to their placement plan, risk assessment and positive handling plan, paying attention to the YP faith, beliefs, culture while maintaining dignity. For example, when holding a YP, ensuring that the hold is not intrusive, especially to private parts of the body. Shoul d the YP clothes ride up, for staff to inform the YP that they are about to adjust their clothing. It is important to maintain dignity and respect when recording the incident. Not  using a derogatory tone when referring to the YP, instead recording in a way that describes the negative behaviour displayed by the YP.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Seat Belts Argumentative Essay

A seat belt is a restraining device installed in a vehicle to prevent or minimize the force of an injury during a crash (â€Å"Seat Belts† 5). Although it is also known as a safety belt, the â€Å"safety† part is the key issue that is causing much controversy around drivers, manufacturers, and researchers alike. The main idea around the debate is the fact that although research indicates that when seat belts are used properly they save lives, opponents argue that mandating their use can actually cause more harm than good in some cases and is an infringement on personal rights.Car accidents are the leading cause of death for people under 35. Due to the fact that at least 40,000 people die each year in car accidents, the law that mandates seatbelts on all drivers/passengers in vehicles should stay in place. Although Seat Belts have been shown to provide safety to drivers and passengers who use them, not everyone is a fan of the mandatory seat belt laws. Opponents who are against the idea of mandatory seat belt laws say that they might be safer without seat belts and that airbags will protect them.Many people argue that they may be safer without seat belts. According to the article â€Å"Seat Belts† â€Å"In high-speed collisions where crash forces are extreme, seat belts have been linked to life-threatening conditions, including cardiac arrests and injuries to the chest, abdomen, or neck† (5). They put forward this idea because they feel that seat belts are causing more harm than good. However, airbags were never made to take the place of a seatbelt, and when worn with a seatbelt, they increase the effectiveness of it by 40%.Airbags also don’t protect from side-impacts at all so they aren’t safer than seatbelts. Another argument opponents against seatbelts have is that mandatory seatbelt laws are a violation of freedom. They claim that they should have a choice whether or not they should wear a seatbelt when in a vehicle. However, this is not an infringement on freedom. Freedom stops when we get to a point where others may be harmed or killed. As soon as something puts lives in danger, the â€Å"right† of freedom disappears thus making mandatory seatbelt laws a non-infringement on freedom.â€Å"Seat belts are the single most effective traffic safety device for preventing death and injury in a vehicle† (â€Å"Seat Belt Safety, Seat Belt Laws†). Wearing a seat belt can reduce the risk of crash injuries by 50%. Seat belts save lives and are effective in preventing ejections from a vehicle. While opponents argue that in certain cases it is better to not wear a seatbelt, wearing a seatbelt is usually the safer route. A person will never know what type of accident they might enter and thus can’t prepare for a certain type of accident.You can’t know whether or not having a seatbelt will save you. It’s better to wear a seatbelt and have a 50% of survival than not we aring a seatbelt and have a 3% chance of being in a situational accident where not having a seat belt will save you. Research shows that â€Å"Seat Belts saved more than 75,000 lives from 2004 to 2008† (â€Å"Seat Belt Safety, Seat Belt Laws†). Without the mandatory use of seat belts, many lives could be put in danger and this would have negative social and economic effects on society.49 States in the USA have issued mandatory seat belt laws to promote safe habits and to protect the people. With this law in place, many lives have been saved as people were forced to wear seat belts to properly protect them in crashes. In a crash, there are two types of collisions. These are called, Primary and Secondary collisions. â€Å"A Primary Collision is the impact between the vehicle and another vehicle or object. A Secondary Collision refers to the impact of an occupant with some part of the vehicle’s interior, such as the steering wheel, the roof, or the windshield† (â€Å"Seat Belts† 2).Seat Belts are designed to tighten at the appropriate moment, so that they either prevent the second collision or at least minimize the injury potential of the even. Without the mandatory seat belt laws, many people will die in crashes in which simple use of a seat belt could have saved them. Seat Belts are optimal to Vehicle Safety and should be required to be used in every vehicle. Even if you are a very good driver or have never been in an accident, you can never predict what will happen when you’re on the road. Seat Belts can help save the lives of both you and others around you.With Seat Belts Laws in place, vehicle travel will be a much safer place. Safety is a concern not just with seat belts, but also with many things in life. When driving, safety should be above all and many safety technologies such as airbags, anti-lock brakes, and traction control are in place to protect the people. Seat Belts are the main force that is saving many l ives of drivers young and old. Although seat belts provide a good level of safety, the debate over the relative safety of such devices, as well as the rights to passengers to choose whether or not they want to use these devices, is sure to continue.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

A Study on Risk Management in Banking Industry Essay

Risk management is relatively new and emerging practice as far as Indian banks are concerned and has been proved that it’s a mirror of efficient corporate governance of a financial institution. Globalization and significant competition between foreign and domestic banks, survival and optimizing returns are very crucial for banks and financial institutions. However, selecting the efficient customer and providing innovative and value added financial products and services are another paramount factors. In a volatile and dynamic market place for achieving sustainable business growth and shareholder’s value, it is essential to develop a link between risks and rewards of all products and services of the bank. Hence, the banks should have efficient risk management framework to mitigate all internal and external risks. The objective of this study is to envisage ideal framework of bank-wide risk management for Indian Banks. The presence of accurate measures of bank-wide risk management practice increase shareholder’s returns and allows the risk-taking behavior of bank to be more closely aligned with strategic objectives. Bank-wide risk management practice should aim to enhance the drivers of shareholder’s value such as: – 0 Growth; 1 Risk adjusted performance measurement; 2 Consistency of earnings; and 3 Quality and transparency of management. The important steps of the efficient framework of banking concern should ensure all risks are identified, prioritized, quantified, controlled and managed in order to achieve an optimal risk-reward profile. This entails ideal and dedicated coordination of risk management across the bank’s various business units. However, the approach to monitoring and enforcing the adherence of business units within the bank may vary. The factors that influence this decision are: – 4 The feasibility decisions of the business unit. Â  5 The regulatory requirements in respect of the business unit. 6 The cost of effective monitoring and controlling steps. Risk management is a line function that needs to be addressed by each individual cost center and business unit. However, a centralized bank-wide risk management framework has certain advantages for the Bank. The advantages are: – 7 Improving capital efficiency by providing an objective basis for allocating resources reducing expenditures on immaterial risks and exploring natural hedges and portfolio effects; 8 Supporting informed decision making by uncovering areas of high potential adverse impact on drivers of share value, and identifying and exploiting areas of risk-based advantage context. 9 Building investor confidence by establishing a process to stabilize results by protecting them from disturbances, and demonstrating proactive risk stewardship 10 Define cost and profitability centers 11 Profitability and cost allocation on customer, product, services and branch wide Most of the banks do not have dedicated risk management team, policy, procedures and framework in place. Those banks have risk management department, the risk manager’s role is restricted to pre-fact and post-fact analysis of customer’s credit and there is no segregation of credit, market, operational and strategic risks. There are few banks have articulated framework and risk quantification. However, the outputs are far from the stressed or actual losses due to usage of un-compatible implications. The traditional lending practices, assessment of credits, handling of market risks *, treasury functionality and culture of risk-rewards are hauls of public sector banks. Where as private sector banks and financial institutions are some-what better in this context. The sheer size and wide coverage of banks is a big hurdle to integrate and generate a cost effective real time operational data for mapping the risks. Most of the financial institutions processes are encircled to ‘functional silos’ follows bureaucratic structure and yet to come up with a transparent and appropriate corporate governance structure to achieve the stated strategic objectives. CONCLUSION There are many banks like HSBC, Citibank, Deutsche bank have bank-wide risk management practice which contributed in their global success whereas banks and institutions like Sumitomo Corp, Barings, Bank of America, CSFB and UTI have failed due to lack of efficient bank-wide risk management practice (compliance and operational risks). So the above comments emphasis the necessity of having bank-wide risk management to achieve the stated strategic objectives in a competitive, volatile and dynamic market conditions in an emerging Indian economy. We believe the above-described bank-wide risk management framework is easy workable, cost effective and efficient process without any hassles or hurdles of high-tech tools and techniques

Saturday, September 14, 2019

JROTC Builds Character and Leardership

Junior ROTC can be a four year of your life with new experiences that builds character and leadership. Im a freshman and i joined JROTC when the school stared , and i wasn't sure what to expect about JROTC and the class mates. Throughout my six-months being a cadet, i was challanged emotionally, mentally , and physically. However i was able to learn about how to work in teams and how to become a leader. JROTC teaches character, leadership, personal responsibility, healthy lifestyles etc. It teaches responsibility, discipline and personal accountability. You do not have to go into the military if you join.If you are lacking in responsible adults in your life that teach you life lessons then JROTC can be really good. Or just if you need a new crowd of people to hang around with who will be positive influences. JROTC has taught me what I would not have learned in any other class in high school. Junior ROTC is unique because it gives us the independence to make decisions that impact us d irectly and we are free to make the organization our own. The goal is attained by mutual cooperation and behavior. They also teach us to build character and leadership by giving us guidence and putting the cadets in a position that we are not used to do.This helps us adapt to new things. The best leaders are those who can lead and direct without misuse of their power. They must be able to inspire others in a greater good. They must have honesty, confidence, communication, and commitment. JROTC brings us out the best in cadets because of the higher level of maturity expected of them from the teachers and the vast of students involvement in running the program. JROTC it is a great program that teaches leadership to students and is a worthwhile investment in one’s future. I love JROTC because it’s a place that im with friends that respect me for who I am .

Friday, September 13, 2019

The Concept of Privacy under the Fourth Amendment Essay

The Concept of Privacy under the Fourth Amendment - Essay Example The right to privacy is stipulated in the 4th amendment of United States Constitution (Hess & Orthmann, 2008). The court argued that making a telephone call is a personal affair; therefore, the FBI and Police Department illegally recorded Katz’s phone call. This is because the 4th amendment barres any state agency to engage in unlawful seizures and searches of American Citizens (Hess & Orthmann, 2008). The 4th amendment of the U.S. Constitution defines what is needed to trespass into any American’s right to privacy. It also defines what privacy right means. This amendment is what made the U.S. Supreme Court rule in favour of Katz. This test asks two questions; first, whether a person has a subjective, or actual expectation of privacy. This is evaluated in the context of individual behaviour, case by case, and is focused on the subjective or actual belief of the victim, who is the subject of the search (Hess & Orthmann, 2008). Second, whether or not there is an objective expectation of society. This tests whether there is a substantial expectation of privacy. The majority of the court rejected trespass doctrine, holding that the 4th amendment does not protect things that an individual exposes to the public, but what an individual expects to keep private, in all places, including public areas (Hess & Orthmann,