Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Employment and Open Method of Co Ordination - MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Employment and Open Method of Co Ordination. Answer: Introduction Treaty of Amsterdam of the year 1997 helped in introducing the concept of European Employment Strategy. European Council asked member states to chalk out multiannual programme in relation to employment. They were asked to provide with report pertaining to implementation. Open method of Co-ordination (OMC) refers to a policy making process of the European Union that was initiated by Lisbon European Council in the year 2000 (Borrs and Radaelli 2015). It does not give birth to that of the EU legislation and it is a method pertaining to soft governance. It helps in achieving convergence in relation to the European goals pertaining to policy areas that fall under competence of the Member States. The labour market strategy of that of the European Union helped in the process of dealing with discrimination based on different grounds like religion, sexual orientation and disability. This essay analyzes aspects of open method of co-ordination pertaining to the European Union. This essay also t alks about the measures that can be made use of by the European Union in tackling unemployment. Neo-liberalism is indicative of the economic policies that have spread in the last twenty-five years. On account of neo-liberalism, the rich countries have a tendency of becoming richer and the poor countries tend to become poorer. The working people conceive of neo-liberalism to be progressive as compared to that of the rightwing people. Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations wanted the abolition of that of government intervention in matters related to economic policy. The conditions prevailing in that of the European Union Labour Market improved in the year 2016 and in the first half of the year 2017 (Mattocks 2018). It has been found that the number of people who are in the employment amounts to around 235.4 million in the second quarter of the year 2017. The Europe 2020 strategy has emphasized that the employment target of that of 75 % would the within the reach. With the rise of the education, it has been found that employment has increased among that of the workers who are highly educated. It has been found that the medium along with that of the low-skilled workers recorded lower level of that of employment by around 0.4 percent and that of 0.9 percent respectively (Zeitlin and Vanhercke 2018). The recovery has helped in boosting both permanent along with that of temporary jobs and there are many employees who are working full schedule. Open Method of Co-ordination refers to intergovernmental means in relation to governance within European Union that is based on voluntary co-operation of the different member states. It is dependent on that of soft law mechanism like guidelines along with indicators. The other kind of mechanisms that are at work includes that of benchmarking along with sharing of the best practices. This shows that there exists no official sanctions for those who are laggard. The effectiveness of the method rests on peer pressure along with the process of naming and shaming. None of the member states wants to see themselves as the worst pertaining to a given policy area that makes them abide by the open method of co-ordination. OMC is a new instrument pertaining to governance within the European Union. The term was coined in the year 2000 but the method goes back to the 1992 Maastricht Treaty. The introduction of OMC helped in promoting social policies that are effective. This kind of governance was thought to be intrusive by that of the member states. The evolving priorities of European Union over the course of the years led to the evolution of that of the European Union (Bickerton, Hodson and Puetter 2015). In between the years 1975 and that of 1994, European Economic Community carried out different pilot projects that can help in combating exclusion. Community action pertaining to this area was being carried out owing to the lack of any kind of legal basis. Treaty of Amsterdam in the year 1999 highlighted the removal of that of social exclusion. Social Protection Committee was set up in the year 2000 in order to facilitate co-operation among that of the member states and the Commission (Benz, Corcaci and Wolfgang Doser 2016). The entire process was stream-lined and it was turned into that of single social OMC in the year 2005. Single social OMC was aimed at eradication of poverty and guaranteeing of sustainable pension system. It also provided high quality health care and that of long term care. OMC should adopt methodology of that of Lisbon Strategy in relation to adoption of joint political objectives (Paetzold and Van Vliet 2014). Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union ( TEFU) stands to be one of the two primary treaties of that of the European Union. It formed the basis of that of the law of the European Union and it set the scope of the European Union so that it could legislate. According to the Article 153 TFEU social inclusion can be achieved based on that of non-legal co-operation (Cheneval, Lavenex and Schimmelfennig 2015). Commission updated that of the Council Recommendation 92/441/EEC which laid out that the member states can carry out an implementation of a strategy that results in i nclusion of people who are not considered within the labour market. It wanted to lift more than that of 20 million people out of the state of poverty. In the year 2010, Commission launched the platform against that of poverty and there were certain key initiatives like assessment of the active inclusion strategy. After the year 2011, Annual Convention was responsible for bringing together stakeholders and the policy makers (Nicoladis 2015). The Commission also adopted two initiatives in the year 2013. Two further initiatives were also launched by the Commission in the year 2013. In the Social Investment Package of February 2013, Commission asked the member states to lay emphasis on the aspect of social investment in the people in order to invest in children so that they would be able to break away from that of the cycle of disadvantage. In the year 2013, commission presented proposal that can strengthen social dimension by responding to the calls of that of European Council. Social scoreboard acts as an analytical tool that can detect the development across that of European Union. Five key indicator in relation to this were unemployment, youth unemployment, number of the youth not associated with education, training, disposable income, risk pertaining to poverty rate and that of income inequalities (Ure 2015). Labour Market Strategy The year 1997 can be conceived of to be a great turning point and a new Article 13 was brought into that of the Treaty Establishing the European Community. It empowered the Council to take action so that it can deal with that of discrimination on different grounds like that of ethnic origin, religion, disability and that of sexual orientation (Mattocks 2018). In the year 2003 the article was changed by that of the Treaty of Nice that allowed the adoption in relation to various measures that were incentive. The directories that were adopted were that of Racial Equality Directive, Employment Equality Directive and that of Equal Treatment Directive (Maricut and Puetter 2018). It helped in the process of merging of that of previous directives that was dedicated to that of equal opportunities in relation to men and that of women. Comparative analysis pertaining to non-discrimination law in that of Europe highlights that directives have been able to enhance that of legal protection against the factor of discrimination within Europe (Taylor 2017). The labour market strategy of the European Union worked in the field of long-term unemployment and it helped in preventing labour market segmentation that helped in making employment secure. It focussed on increasing the participation of women in that of the work force and the elimination of the gender pay gap that remains high within that of Europe. The two commission proposals that helped in establishing in enhancing the element of equality are waiting for consensus in that of the Council. The directives were related to gender balance in that of company board and implementation of principle of equal treatment in between the people who are outside that of the employment field (Borrs and Radaelli 2015). In the April of the year 2017, Commission presented a proposal that talked about work-life balance for that of the parents. It acted as a deliverable of that of the European Pillar of that of the Social Rights. It revolves around sharing the caring responsibilities between that of men and the women (Benz, Corcaci and Wolfgang Doser 2016). In the December of the year 2002, Parliament along with the Council adopted the decision 50/2002/EC. It was instrumental in establishment of a community action that encouraged co-operation among the member states. It helped in combating the issue of social exclusion. Another programme that helped in combating discrimination was based on Article 13 (2). It helped in covering all the grounds as set in that of Article 13 and it excluded the conception of sex (Mattocks 2018). It was dealt in a different manner by gender equality programme of that of European Community. Women face economic disincentives in relation to that of labour force participation. The benefit system affects the decision of participation in labour market along with that of the hours of working. The disincentives pertaining to work can be high for that of the second earners. Compensated family-related leave can help in boosting the participation of female in that of the labour force (Ure 2015). Balanced use pertaining to leave entitlements (of men and women) have positive effect on that of the care responsibilities. Access to that of quality services like childcare along with housing can help in the process of social inclusion. Access to the element of affordable child care can provide the children with the best chances in their life. High quality health care is of great significance in living a healthy life and for the contribution in the society (Mattocks 2018). Inequality in aspect to health care can lead to illness and inability of working. Job creation schemes that target the medium along with long term unemployed can help in aspects of perverse employment effect on that of short-term unemployed. These schemes can prove to be more stable and can help in te aspect of cost-effectiveness. Training has immense amount of positive long term effect. Vocational training can prove to be suitable for different kinds of reasons and it can help in the better matching of that of skills. Certified vocational training can assist an individual in the effective transition from that of education to work (Maricut and Puetter 2018). The reformation in relation to employment protection legislation is very intense in those countries that have accumulated imbalance. These includes countries like that of Spain, France, Portugal and Slovenia. Single status law helped in harmonising the notice period between that of blue along with that of white collar worker. Italy enacted a labour market reform that was in form of Jobs Act (Ec.europa.eu 2014) .The revision of labour cost in Lithuania helped in the reduction of cost of that of individual dismissals. Netherlands also brought in a cap in relation to unfair dismissal that helped in providing clarity in relation to dismissal (Nicoladis 2015). Community funding programmes in the year 2007 in the arena of that of employment along with social affairs underwent integration to form a single framework. For rationalising aspect of administration, Employment and Social Innovation programme helped in incorporating Progress Programme. The Council was responsible for adopting Regulation ( EU) Number 223/ 2014 for those people who were the most deprived. This fund helped in providing material assistance along with that of social inclusion measures to the people who were the most deprived. Budget of the period 2014-2020 amounted to that of EUR 3.8 billion in that of the real terms (Zeitlin and Vanhercke 2018). An additional 15 % was also levied in relation to national co-financing based on that of the national programmes. The main fund was provided by European Social Fund that helped in co-financing actions. It helped in combating the element of discrimination and helped the disadvantaged people for accessing the labour market. European Disability Strategy was adopted by the Commission on the basis of the Action Plan of 2004-2010. New programme pertaining to gender equality was launched within the year 2016-2019 (Bickerton, Hodson and Puetter 2015). The resolutions of recent times embodied the concern of The Parliament that the European Union was a long distance away from achieving the social targets. The Parliament has asked for a fiscal consolidation that can allow the member states in tackling the issue of unemployment (Nicoladis 2015). Social scoreboard now comprises of additional indicator like that of child poverty level along with that of homelessness. The parliament has stated that the employment along with the social considerations can be put on the same level with that of macroeconomic consideration within that of the European Semester (Nicoladis 2015). The active labour market can only be successful if certain measures are implemented. Counselling along with job-search assistance can be used in case of short-term employment. Vocational training, motivation courses along with that of social support can help in the process of addressing needs of job seeker (Ec.europa.eu 2014) .Subsidies can be provided to the group that is disadvantaged and hey can have a positive influence on the attitudes of the employers towards that of long-term unemployed (Benz, Corcaci and Wolfgang Doser 2016). It can provide an opportunity for the employers to test the employees that are prospective at a cost that is lower than that of full wage. Conclusion: Treaty of Amsterdam brought in the concept pertaining to European Employment Strategy. The member states of the European Council were asked to plan a multi-annual programme related to employment. The time interval between the years 1975 and 1994 witnessed the European Community implementing pilot projects that helped in facing the issue of exclusion. Single social OMC primarily aimed at the removal of poverty and it guaranteed a pension system that was sustainable. High quality pertaining to health care was also facilitated with the help of this method of co-ordination. Strategy of Europe 2020 focussed on aspect pertaining to sustainable growth. Recommendation suggested by the Council helped in integrating those people who were left without a job for a long time. European Solidarity Corps was aimed at the creation of new avenues that can offer help to the young people. Leaves that are compensated can help the female population in participating within the labour force. The balanced us e pertaining to leave entitlements can have positive effect in encouraging the participation of women in the job sector. Counselling and vocational training can be of great help for the job seeker in seeking employment. The open method of co-ordination gave rise to various job creation schemes that helped in targeting those who were unemployed in the long term. Training also facilitated the process of social inclusion and vocational training can help in upgrading the skills of the employees. References: Benz, A., Corcaci, A. and Wolfgang Doser, J., 2016. Unravelling multilevel administration. Patterns and dynamics of administrative co-ordination in European governance.Journal of European Public Policy,23(7), pp.999-1018. Available at : https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13501763.2016.1162838 [Accessed 10 April 2018] Bickerton, C.J., Hodson, D. and Puetter, U., 2015. The new intergovernmentalism: European integration in the post?Maastricht era.JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies,53(4), pp.703-722. Available at : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jcms.12212 [ Accessed 10 April 2018] Borrs, S. and Radaelli, C.M., 2015. Open method of co-ordination for demoi-cracy? Standards and purposes.Journal of European Public Policy,22(1), pp.129-144. Available at : https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13501763.2014.881412 [Accessed 10 April 2018] Cheneval, F., Lavenex, S. and Schimmelfennig, F., 2015. Demoi-cracy in the European Union: principles, institutions, policies.Journal of European Public Policy,22(1), pp.1-18. Available at : https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13501763.2014.886902 [ Accessed 10 April 2018] Ec.europa.eu (2014). [ebook] Available at: https:////ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/file_import/european-semester_thematic-factsheet_employment-protection-legislation_en.pdf [Accessed 10 Apr. 2018]. Ec.europa.eu (2014). [ebook] Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/file_import/european-semester_thematic-factsheet_labour-force-participation-women_en.pdf [Accessed 10 Apr. 2018]. Maricut, A. and Puetter, U., 2018. Deciding on the European Semester: the European Council, the Council and the enduring asymmetry between economic and social policy issues.Journal of European Public Policy,25(2), pp.193-211. Mattocks, K., 2018. Co?ordinating Co?ordination: The European Commission and the Culture Open Method of Co?ordination.JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies,56(2), pp.318-334. Available at : https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13501763.2017.1363271 [Accessed 10 April 2018] Nicoladis, K., 2015. Epilogue: the challenge of European demoi-cratization.Journal of European Public Policy,22(1), pp.145-153. Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13501763.2014.886908?journalCode=rjpp20 [Accessed 10 April 2018] Paetzold, J. and Van Vliet, O., 2014. EU Co?Ordination and the Convergence of Domestic Unemployment Protection Schemes.JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies,52(5), pp.1070-1089. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jcms.12139 [ Accessed 10 April 2018] Taylor, G., 2017. European employment policy: governance as regulation. InEuropean Governance(pp. 81-98). Routledge. Available at : https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781351938570/chapters/10.4324%2F9781315255941-13 [Accessed 10 April 2018] Ure, O.B., 2015. Governance for learning outcomes in european policy-making: qualification frameworks pushed through the open method of coordination.International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training (IJRVET),2(4), pp.268-283. Available at : https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/142455 [ Accessed 10 April 2018] Zeitlin, J. and Vanhercke, B., 2018. Socializing the European Semester: EU social and economic policy co-ordination in crisis and beyond.Journal of European Public Policy,25(2), pp.149-174. Available at : https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13501763.2017.1363269 [ accessed 10 April 2018]

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